Upon exposure to air (emersion), the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus releases an "emersion fluid" from its esophagus. Release of this fluid causes air to appear within the test (or calcareous theca), most likely inside the intestine. The air space is large, occupying 33.5% of the volume of the intrathecal space. The intestine containing air… (More)
Two closely related copper proteins, phenoloxidase and haemocyanin, are known to be involved in different physiological functions such as the primary immune response and oxygen transport. Although the proteins differ structurally, they have the same active site by which dioxygen is bound. Recent results reveal that haemocyanin also exhibits phenoloxidase… (More)
Synopsis Proteins in the arthropod hemocyanin gene family are involved in major physiological processes, including aerobic respiration, the innate immune response, and molting. Members of this family, hemocyanin, cryptocyanin, and phenoloxidase, are multisubunit molecules that assemble into hexamers and higher aggregates. The hemocyanin hexamers show… (More)
SYNOPSIS. The exoskeleton of crustaceans and insects is formed by cells of the hypodermis, but several hemolymph proteins contribute to the synthesis of the new exoskeleton. These hemolymph proteins share a surprising degree of sequence similarity and are members of the hemocyanin gene family. Copper-containing pro-phenoloxidases of crustaceans and insects… (More)
The innate immune response is a conserved trait shared by invertebrates and vertebrates. In crustaceans, circulating hemocytes play significant roles in the immune response, including the release of prophenoloxidases. Activated phenoloxidase (tyrosinase) participates in encapsulation and melanization of foreign organisms as well as sclerotization of the new… (More)
This article summarizes the contributions given at the symposium "The Benefits of Gas-binding Proteins. Integrative and Evolutionary Physiology of Copper Proteins: Molecules to Organisms and their Environment," presented at the First International Congress of Respiratory Biology, August 14-16, at Bad Honnef/Bonn, Germany.