Noor Khafifah Khalid

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Image difference operation is frequently used in automated printed circuit board (PCB) inspection system as well as in many other image processing applications. During the implementation, this operation brings along the unwanted noise due to misalignment and uneven binarization. Thus, this paper proposes a method to eliminate, if possible, or to reduce as(More)
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) has certain unique properties such as selfassembly and self-complementary in hybridization, which are important in many DNA-based technologies. DNA computing, for example, uses these properties to realize a computation, in vitro, which consists of several chemical reactions. Other DNA-based technologies such as DNAbased(More)
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) has certain unique properties such as self-assembly and self-complementary in hybridization, which are important in many DNA-based technologies. DNA computing, for example, uses these properties to realize a computation in vitro, which consists of several chemical reactions. Other DNA-based technologies such as DNA-based(More)
In DNA based computation and DNA nanotechnology, the design of good DNA sequences has turned out to be an elementary problem and one of the most practical and important research topics. Although the design of DNA sequences is dependent on the protocol of biological experiments, it is highly required to establish a method for the systematic design of DNA(More)
Problem statement: In DNA based computation and DNA nanotechnology, the design of good DNA sequences has turned out to be an essential problem and one of the most practical and important research topics. Basically, the DNA sequence design problem is a multi-objective problem and it can be evaluated using four objective functions, namely, H measure ,(More)
Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is the most important component of the electronic industry and thus, the electronic mass-production facilities make an attempt to achieve Printed Circuit Board with 100% quality assurance. To achieve Printed Circuit Board with 100% quality assurance i. e. to produce zero-defect Printed Circuit Board, inspection method is the(More)
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