Noor Khafifah Khalid

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In DNA based computation and DNA nanotechnology, the design of good DNA sequences has turned out to be an elementary problem and one of the most practical and important research topics. Although the design of DNA sequences is dependent on the protocol of biological experiments, it is highly required to establish a method for the systematic design of DNA(More)
Hybridization between a DNA sequence and its base-pairing complement is crucial in DNA computing to retrieve the information stored in DNA sequences and operate a computation processes. Therefore, much works have focused on designing the DNA sequences for a reliable molecular computation. In this paper, Ant Colony System (ACS) is proposed to solve the DNA(More)
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) has certain unique properties such as selfassembly and selfcomplementary in hybridization, which are important in many DNA-based technologies. DNA computing, for example, uses these properties to realize a computation, in vitro, which consists of several chemical reactions. Other DNA-based technologies such as DNAbased(More)
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) has certain unique properties such as selfassembly and self-complementary in hybridization, which are important in many DNAbased technologies. DNA computing, for example, uses these properties to realize a computation in vitro, which consists of several chemical reactions. Other DNA-based technologies such as DNA-based(More)
Problem statement: In DNA based computation and DNA nanotechnology, the design of good DNA sequences has turned out to be an essential problem and one of the most practical and important research topics. Basically, the DNA sequence design problem is a multi-objective problem and it can be evaluated using four objective functions, namely, Hmeasure,(More)
DNA computation exploits the computational power inherent in molecules for information processing. However, in order to perform the computation correctly, a set of good DNA sequences is crucial. A lot of work has been carried out on designing good DNA sequences to archive a reliable molecular computation. In this article, the ant colony system (ACS) is(More)
Image difference operation is frequently used in automated printed circuit board (PCB) inspection system as well as in many other image processing applications. During the implementation, this operation brings along the unwanted noise due to misalignment and uneven binarization. Thus, this paper proposes a method to eliminate, if possible, or to reduce as(More)
DNA computing is a new computing paradigm which uses bio-molecular as information storage media and biochemical tools as information processing operators. It has shows many successful and promising results for various applications. Since DNA reactions are probabilistic reactions, it can cause the different results for the same situations, which can be(More)
This paper proposes a fractal square loop frequency selective surface (FSS) with dual-band stop behavior. The FSS elements are etched on FR-4 substrate to attenuate signals at GSM900, GSM1800 and IMT2000 frequency bands while transmitting other microwave signals. The unit cell geometry is a modification of the conventional square loop which shows an(More)