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Adiponectin is an adipose-specific plasma protein whose plasma concentrations are decreased in obese subjects and type 2 diabetic patients. This protein possesses putative antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. In the current study, we have analyzed the relationship between adiponectin and insulin resistance in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta),(More)
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are dietary lipid sensors that regulate fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. The hypolipidemic effects of the fibrate drugs and the antidiabetic effects of the glitazone drugs in humans are due to activation of the alpha (NR1C1) and gamma (NR1C3) subtypes, respectively. By contrast, the therapeutic(More)
The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between basal hepatic glucose production (HGP) and peripheral insulin sensitivity as assessed by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp prior to and during the development of non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus in rhesus monkeys. Twenty-six male monkeys (Macaca mulatta), including normal(More)
Calorie restriction to produce stable long-term adult body weight for approximately 10 years prevents obesity and diabetes in middle-aged rhesus monkeys. To determine whether this dietary regimen also alters energy metabolism, the doubly labeled water method was used to measure total daily energy expenditure. Six adult male rhesus monkeys, which had been(More)
Altered insulin action on glycogen synthase activity has been well recognized in non-insulin-dependent diabetes, and some prior evidence has suggested this alteration may be one of the earliest disturbances preceding the development of diabetes. The present study, using the spontaneously insulin-resistant and diabetic rhesus monkey, examined insulin's(More)
Islet amyloid formed from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, amylin) is found in spontaneously diabetic monkeys and cats. Islet amyloidosis is progressive, apparently irreversible and is associated with destruction of insulin-secreting cells. The role of macrophages in the destruction and removal of islet amyloid is unknown. Therefore, the presence and(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) together with CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and glucose transporter (GLUT4) mRNA in adipose tissue of rhesus monkeys in relation to obesity. DESIGN Cloning of the PPARgamma1 and gamma2 cDNAs and analysis of(More)
K-111, formerly BM 17.0744, (2,2-dichloro-12-(4-chlorophenyl)-dodecanoic acid) is a new insulin-sensitizer with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha activity but without PPAR gamma activity. We determined the efficacy of K-111 in non-human primates in increasing insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and improving metabolic syndrome, assessing(More)
Insulin covalently and allosterically regulates glycogen synthase (GS) and may also cause the translocation of GS from glycogen-poor to glycogen-rich locations. We examined the possible role of subcellular localization of GS and glycogen in insulin activation of GS in skeletal muscle of six obese monkeys and determined whether 1) insulin stimulation during(More)
Exendin-4 is a 39 amino acid peptide isolated from the salivary secretions of the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum). It shows 53% sequence similarity to glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. Unlike GLP-1, exendin-4 has a prolonged glucose-lowering action in vivo. We compared the potency and duration of glucose-lowering effects of exendin-4 and GLP-1 in(More)