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Adiponectin is an adipose-specific plasma protein whose plasma concentrations are decreased in obese subjects and type 2 diabetic patients. This protein possesses putative antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. In the current study, we have analyzed the relationship between adiponectin and insulin resistance in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta),(More)
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are dietary lipid sensors that regulate fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. The hypolipidemic effects of the fibrate drugs and the antidiabetic effects of the glitazone drugs in humans are due to activation of the alpha (NR1C1) and gamma (NR1C3) subtypes, respectively. By contrast, the therapeutic(More)
Islet amyloid formed from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, amylin) is found in spontaneously diabetic monkeys and cats. Islet amyloidosis is progressive, apparently irreversible and is associated with destruction of insulin-secreting cells. The role of macrophages in the destruction and removal of islet amyloid is unknown. Therefore, the presence and(More)
K-111, formerly BM 17.0744, (2,2-dichloro-12-(4-chlorophenyl)-dodecanoic acid) is a new insulin-sensitizer with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha activity but without PPAR gamma activity. We determined the efficacy of K-111 in non-human primates in increasing insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and improving metabolic syndrome, assessing(More)
Insulin covalently and allosterically regulates glycogen synthase (GS) and may also cause the translocation of GS from glycogen-poor to glycogen-rich locations. We examined the possible role of subcellular localization of GS and glycogen in insulin activation of GS in skeletal muscle of six obese monkeys and determined whether 1) insulin stimulation during(More)
Exendin-4 is a 39 amino acid peptide isolated from the salivary secretions of the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum). It shows 53% sequence similarity to glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. Unlike GLP-1, exendin-4 has a prolonged glucose-lowering action in vivo. We compared the potency and duration of glucose-lowering effects of exendin-4 and GLP-1 in(More)
Long term chronic calorie restriction (CR) of adult nonhuman primates significantly reduces morbidity and increases median age of death. The present review is focused upon an ongoing study of sustained adult-onset calorie restriction, which has been underway for 15 years. Monkeys, initially calorie restricted at about 10 years of age, are now approximately(More)
Mortality and morbidity were examined in 117 laboratory-maintained rhesus monkeys studied over approximately 25 years (8 dietary-restricted [DR] and 109 ad libitum-fed [AL] monkeys). During the study, 49 AL monkeys and 3 DR monkeys died. Compared with the DR monkeys, the AL monkeys had a 2.6-fold increased risk of death. Hyperinsulinemia led to a 3.7-fold(More)
Long-term dietary restriction to maintain constant body weight in adult rhesus monkeys prevents the development of impaired glucose tolerance, hyperglycemia, and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. We sought to determine whether these positive antidiabetogenic effects of reduced calorie intake with maintenance of normal lean body weight might be(More)
Previously, we demonstrated that nondiabetic insulin-resistant monkeys had reduced covalent insulin activation of muscle glycogen synthase (GS) compared to normal monkeys and that covalent insulin activation of adipose tissue GS was absent in these monkeys. Covalent insulin activation of muscle and adipose tissue GS in monkeys with impaired glucose(More)