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mTOR, the mammalian target of rapamycin, is a critical node for control of cell growth and survival and has widely been implicated in cancer survival signals. mTOR exists in two complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. Phospholipase D (PLD) and its metabolite phosphatidic acid (PA) have been implicated in the regulation of mTOR; however, their role has been(More)
Constitutive expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) has been implicated in several proliferative disorders. Constitutive expression of HIF1 alpha and HIF2 alpha has been linked to a number of human cancers, especially renal cell carcinoma (RCC), in which HIF2 alpha expression is the more important contributor. Expression of HIF1 alpha is dependent on(More)
mTOR, the mammalian target of rapamycin, is a critical target of survival signals in many human cancers. In the absence of serum, rapamycin induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. However, in the presence of serum, rapamycin induces G(1) cell cycle arrest-indicating that a factor(s) in serum suppresses rapamycin-induced apoptosis. We(More)
A characteristic of cancer cells is the generation of lactate from glucose in spite of adequate oxygen for oxidative phosphorylation. This property - known as the "Warburg effect" or aerobic glycolysis - contrasts with anaerobic glycolysis, which is triggered in hypoxic normal cells. The Warburg effect is thought to provide a means for cancer cells to(More)
MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells have a survival signal generated by phospholipase D (PLD) that involves the activation of mTOR and MAP kinase. TGF-beta signals that block cell cycle progression in G(1) are suppressed in MDA-MB-231 cells. We report here that the elevated PLD activity in MDA-MB-231 cells suppresses TGF-beta signaling. Suppression of PLD(More)
Survival signals in cancer cells activate mTOR-the mammalian target of rapamycin. mTOR suppresses TGF-beta signals that arrest cell cycle progression in late G1-thus activated mTOR prevents cell cycle arrest at a checkpoint mediated by TGF-beta. Rapamycin treatment resurrects TGF-beta signals causing G1 arrest. Defects in TGF-beta signaling are common in(More)
AIM To compare the change in urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients with albuminuria who initiate sitagliptin to those who initiate a sulfonylurea (SU) as add-on to metformin monotherapy. METHOD A cohort of T2DM patients with albuminuria (UACR >30mg/g) who initiated sitagliptin or SU as add-on dual therapy to(More)
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