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Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated pentameric ion channels that account for the effects of nicotine. Recent genetic studies have highlighted the importance of variants of the CHRNA5/A3/B4 genomic cluster in human nicotine dependence. Among these genetic variants those found in non-coding segments of the cluster may contribute to the(More)
Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance among pregnant women. Although there has been substantial concern about the effects of substance use during pregnancy, few studies have assessed the effects of prenatal exposure to marijuana and even fewer have provided longitudinal data on the developmental outcome of offspring. This is a report from a(More)
This is a prospective study of prenatal substance use. Women were interviewed during their fourth and seventh months of pregnancy, at delivery, and at 8, 18, and 36 months postpartum. At birth, there were 763 liveborn, singleton offspring in the sample. At each phase, the offspring were examined and measured for growth. Data are presented on the(More)
The pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) is considered to be a key node in the cognitive control of actions that require rapid updating, inhibition, or switching, as well as working memory. It is now recognized that the pre-SMA is part of a "cognitive control" network involving the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and subcortical regions, such as the striatum(More)
Ethanol consumption produces a wide range of effects on the central nervous system, most of them related to changes in neural receptors. In vitro studies have demonstrated that ethanol increases neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nnAChR) affinity for ACh (Narahashi et al., 1991) and have also reported differences in sensitivity of nnAChRs for ethanol,(More)
In a longitudinal study of marijuana and other substance use during pregnancy, women were interviewed at each trimester of pregnancy. Growth parameters, morphological abnormalities and gestational age were assessed for the 519 liveborn singletons. There were few significant effects of marijuana use during pregnancy on birth weight, head or chest(More)
Abuse of alcohol and smoking are extensively co-morbid. Some studies suggest partial commonality of action of alcohol and nicotine mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested mice with transgenic over expression of the alpha 5, alpha 3, beta 4 receptor subunit genes, which lie in a cluster on human chromosome 15, that were(More)
and Switzerland) in order to assess similarities and differences in four main areas relating to, and influencing, service provision for alcohol use disorders (AUD), service utilisation, impact and cost-effectiveness of brief interventions and specialist treatment for alcohol use disorders. Semi-structured questionnaires were designed for key clinical and(More)
A number of studies have reported that ethanol exposure induces changes in different brain systems. The hippocampus is a brain region that is very vulnerable to ethanol exposition, which functionally results in impairment of learning and memory processes reported in heavy drinkers. Hippocampal nicotinic receptors are involved in learning and memory. In this(More)
BACKGROUND The objectives of the study were to develop web-based Spanish and Catalan versions of the EQ-5D-Y, and to compare scores and psychometric properties with the paper version. METHODS Web-based and paper versions of EQ-5D-Y were included in a cross-sectional study in Palafolls (Barcelona), Spain and administered to students (n = 923) aged 8 to 18(More)