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Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated pentameric ion channels that account for the effects of nicotine. Recent genetic studies have highlighted the importance of variants of the CHRNA5/A3/B4 genomic cluster in human nicotine dependence. Among these genetic variants those found in non-coding segments of the cluster may contribute to the(More)
Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance among pregnant women. Although there has been substantial concern about the effects of substance use during pregnancy, few studies have assessed the effects of prenatal exposure to marijuana and even fewer have provided longitudinal data on the developmental outcome of offspring. This is a report from a(More)
This is a prospective study of prenatal substance use. Women were interviewed during their fourth and seventh months of pregnancy, at delivery, and at 8, 18, and 36 months postpartum. At birth, there were 763 liveborn, singleton offspring in the sample. At each phase, the offspring were examined and measured for growth. Data are presented on the(More)
The pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) is considered to be a key node in the cognitive control of actions that require rapid updating, inhibition, or switching, as well as working memory. It is now recognized that the pre-SMA is part of a "cognitive control" network involving the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and subcortical regions, such as the striatum(More)
In a longitudinal study of marijuana and other substance use during pregnancy, women were interviewed at each trimester of pregnancy. Growth parameters, morphological abnormalities and gestational age were assessed for the 519 liveborn singletons. There were few significant effects of marijuana use during pregnancy on birth weight, head or chest(More)
Abuse of alcohol and smoking are extensively co-morbid. Some studies suggest partial commonality of action of alcohol and nicotine mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested mice with transgenic over expression of the alpha 5, alpha 3, beta 4 receptor subunit genes, which lie in a cluster on human chromosome 15, that were(More)
We investigated the effects of prenatal substance use on visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Seventy-four children were tested at birth and 1 month of age with binocular flash VEPs and at 4, 8, and 18 months of age with binocular pattern VEPs. Regressions were run by trimester to assess the independent effects of substance exposure. Variables included in the(More)
BACKGROUND The objectives of the study were to develop web-based Spanish and Catalan versions of the EQ-5D-Y, and to compare scores and psychometric properties with the paper version. METHODS Web-based and paper versions of EQ-5D-Y were included in a cross-sectional study in Palafolls (Barcelona), Spain and administered to students (n = 923) aged 8 to 18(More)
BACKGROUND The objectives of the study were to develop web-based Spanish and Catalan versions of the KIDSCREEN, and to compare scores and psychometric properties with the paper version. METHODS Internet and paper Spanish and Catalan versions of the KIDSCREEN-52 were included in a cross-sectional study in school-age children. Web-based and paper Spanish or(More)
Background: The objectives of the study were to develop web-based Spanish and Catalan versions of the KIDSCREEN, and to compare scores and psychometric properties with the paper version. Methods: Internet and paper Spanish and Catalan versions of the KIDSCREEN-52 were included in a cross-sectional study in school-age children. Web-based and paper Spanish or(More)