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BACKGROUND Because risk perceptions can affect protective behavior and protective behavior can affect risk perceptions, the relations between these 2 constructs are complex and incorrect tests often lead to invalid conclusions. PURPOSE To discuss and carry out appropriate tests of 3 easily confused hypotheses: (a). the behavior motivation hypothesis(More)
BACKGROUND Risk perceptions are central to many health behavior theories. However, the relationship between risk perceptions and behavior, muddied by instances of inappropriate assessment and analysis, often looks weak. METHOD A meta-analysis of eligible studies assessing the bivariate association between adult vaccination and perceived likelihood,(More)
Research has shown that judgments tend to assimilate to irrelevant "anchors." We extend anchoring effects to show that anchors can even operate across modalities by, apparently, priming a general sense of magnitude that is not moored to any unit or scale. An initial study showed that participants drawing long "anchor" lines made higher numerical estimates(More)
BACKGROUND As new genomic technology expands the number of medical tests available to physicians and patients, identifying gaps in our understanding of how best to communicate risk is increasingly important. We examined how health literacy informs breast cancer survivors' understanding of and meaning assigned to recurrence risks yielded by genomic tests. (More)
Many everyday decisions require trade-offs between immediate and delayed benefits. Although much research has assessed discounting of delayed outcomes by using hypothetical scenarios, little research has examined whether these discounting measures correspond to real-world behavior. Three studies examined the relationship between scenario measures of time(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to explore whether post-traumatic growth (PTG) (positive change or benefit finding resulting from trauma) moderates relationships between post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and both depression and quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer survivors. METHODS We interviewed 161 women previously treated for early stage breast cancer.(More)
A growing number of people use the Internet to obtain health information, including information about vaccines. Websites that allow and promote interaction among users are an increasingly popular source of health information. Users of such so-called Web 2.0 applications (e.g. social media), while still in the minority, represent a growing proportion of(More)
INTRODUCTION Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered nicotine delivery devices that have become popular among smokers. We conducted an experiment to understand adult smokers' responses to e-cigarette advertisements and investigate the impact of ads' arguments and imagery. METHODS A U.S. national sample of smokers who had never tried(More)
BACKGROUND Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in Botswana and elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to examine whether HPV vaccine is acceptable among parents in Botswana, which recently licensed the vaccine to prevent cervical cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2009, around the time the vaccine(More)
Theories that focus on beliefs and actions of individuals were among the first theories of health behavior to be developed and remain the most widely used today. In this chapter, we comment on four theories introduced in Part Two of this book: Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behavior, The Transtheoretical Model, and Precaution Adoption Process Model.(More)