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BACKGROUND Because risk perceptions can affect protective behavior and protective behavior can affect risk perceptions, the relations between these 2 constructs are complex and incorrect tests often lead to invalid conclusions. PURPOSE To discuss and carry out appropriate tests of 3 easily confused hypotheses: (a). the behavior motivation hypothesis(More)
BACKGROUND Risk perceptions are central to many health behavior theories. However, the relationship between risk perceptions and behavior, muddied by instances of inappropriate assessment and analysis, often looks weak. METHOD A meta-analysis of eligible studies assessing the bivariate association between adult vaccination and perceived likelihood,(More)
OBJECTIVE To inform future human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs, we systematically reviewed studies of HPV-related beliefs and HPV vaccine acceptability, organizing the findings using health behavior theory and cervical cancer risk factors. METHODS We searched Medline, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from 1995 to January, 2007 for studies of HPV beliefs(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to explore whether post-traumatic growth (PTG) (positive change or benefit finding resulting from trauma) moderates relationships between post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and both depression and quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer survivors. METHODS We interviewed 161 women previously treated for early stage breast cancer.(More)
The aim of our study was to explore reasons for starting and then stopping electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Among a national sample of 3878 U.S. adults who reported ever trying e-cigarettes, the most common reasons for trying were curiosity (53%); because a friend or family member used, gave, or offered e-cigarettes (34%); and quitting or reducing(More)
INTRODUCTION Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered nicotine delivery systems that have become increasingly popular in the United States. We sought to understand how U.S. adults hear about e-cigarettes. METHODS A national sample of 17,522 U.S. adults (≥ 18 years old) completed an online survey in March 2013 assessing their awareness of(More)
BACKGROUND Regular adherence to screening mammography, also known as maintenance of mammography, reduces breast cancer morbidity and mortality. However, mammography maintenance is uncommon and little is known about why women do not maintain regular screening schedules. We investigated longitudinal predictors of women not maintaining adherence. METHODS(More)
Research has shown that judgments tend to assimilate to irrelevant "anchors." We extend anchoring effects to show that anchors can even operate across modalities by, apparently, priming a general sense of magnitude that is not moored to any unit or scale. An initial study showed that participants drawing long "anchor" lines made higher numerical estimates(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to systematically review the literature on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. DATA SOURCES We searched five databases for articles published between 2006 and 1 July 2013 that contained variations of the phrases 'electronic cigarette', 'e-cigarette' and(More)
BACKGROUND Differential access to basic health information may contribute to persistent cervical cancer disparities. We examined whether human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine awareness, HPV knowledge, and use of information sources about the vaccine differ by sociodemographic characteristics associated with cervical cancer. METHODS Study participants (n =(More)