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BACKGROUND Because risk perceptions can affect protective behavior and protective behavior can affect risk perceptions, the relations between these 2 constructs are complex and incorrect tests often lead to invalid conclusions. PURPOSE To discuss and carry out appropriate tests of 3 easily confused hypotheses: (a). the behavior motivation hypothesis(More)
BACKGROUND Risk perceptions are central to many health behavior theories. However, the relationship between risk perceptions and behavior, muddied by instances of inappropriate assessment and analysis, often looks weak. METHOD A meta-analysis of eligible studies assessing the bivariate association between adult vaccination and perceived likelihood,(More)
OBJECTIVE To inform future human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs, we systematically reviewed studies of HPV-related beliefs and HPV vaccine acceptability, organizing the findings using health behavior theory and cervical cancer risk factors. METHODS We searched Medline, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from 1995 to January, 2007 for studies of HPV beliefs(More)
The aim of our study was to explore reasons for starting and then stopping electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Among a national sample of 3878 U.S. adults who reported ever trying e-cigarettes, the most common reasons for trying were curiosity (53%); because a friend or family member used, gave, or offered e-cigarettes (34%); and quitting or reducing(More)
INTRODUCTION Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered nicotine delivery systems that have become increasingly popular in the United States. We sought to understand how U.S. adults hear about e-cigarettes. METHODS A national sample of 17,522 U.S. adults (≥ 18 years old) completed an online survey in March 2013 assessing their awareness of(More)
Research has shown that judgments tend to assimilate to irrelevant "anchors." We extend anchoring effects to show that anchors can even operate across modalities by, apparently, priming a general sense of magnitude that is not moored to any unit or scale. An initial study showed that participants drawing long "anchor" lines made higher numerical estimates(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to systematically review the literature on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. DATA SOURCES We searched five databases for articles published between 2006 and 1 July 2013 that contained variations of the phrases 'electronic cigarette', 'e-cigarette' and(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to explore whether post-traumatic growth (PTG) (positive change or benefit finding resulting from trauma) moderates relationships between post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and both depression and quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer survivors. METHODS We interviewed 161 women previously treated for early stage breast cancer.(More)
PURPOSE The Internet is an increasingly common source of health-related information. We sought to examine associations between parents' Internet information-seeking and their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. METHODS We interviewed parents within a year after approval of HPV vaccine for females and males.(More)
BACKGROUND As new genomic technology expands the number of medical tests available to physicians and patients, identifying gaps in our understanding of how best to communicate risk is increasingly important. We examined how health literacy informs breast cancer survivors' understanding of and meaning assigned to recurrence risks yielded by genomic tests. (More)