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BACKGROUND Because risk perceptions can affect protective behavior and protective behavior can affect risk perceptions, the relations between these 2 constructs are complex and incorrect tests often lead to invalid conclusions. PURPOSE To discuss and carry out appropriate tests of 3 easily confused hypotheses: (a). the behavior motivation hypothesis(More)
BACKGROUND Risk perceptions are central to many health behavior theories. However, the relationship between risk perceptions and behavior, muddied by instances of inappropriate assessment and analysis, often looks weak. METHOD A meta-analysis of eligible studies assessing the bivariate association between adult vaccination and perceived likelihood,(More)
Research has shown that judgments tend to assimilate to irrelevant "anchors." We extend anchoring effects to show that anchors can even operate across modalities by, apparently, priming a general sense of magnitude that is not moored to any unit or scale. An initial study showed that participants drawing long "anchor" lines made higher numerical estimates(More)
BACKGROUND As new genomic technology expands the number of medical tests available to physicians and patients, identifying gaps in our understanding of how best to communicate risk is increasingly important. We examined how health literacy informs breast cancer survivors' understanding of and meaning assigned to recurrence risks yielded by genomic tests. (More)
The aim of our study was to explore reasons for starting and then stopping electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Among a national sample of 3878 U.S. adults who reported ever trying e-cigarettes, the most common reasons for trying were curiosity (53%); because a friend or family member used, gave, or offered e-cigarettes (34%); and quitting or reducing(More)
BACKGROUND Regular adherence to screening mammography, also known as maintenance of mammography, reduces breast cancer morbidity and mortality. However, mammography maintenance is uncommon and little is known about why women do not maintain regular screening schedules. We investigated longitudinal predictors of women not maintaining adherence. METHODS(More)
Many everyday decisions require trade-offs between immediate and delayed benefits. Although much research has assessed discounting of delayed outcomes by using hypothetical scenarios, little research has examined whether these discounting measures correspond to real-world behavior. Three studies examined the relationship between scenario measures of time(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies document an excess of psychiatric symptoms among veterans of the the 1991 Gulf War. However, little is known about the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in those who were deployed to that conflict. AIMS To compare the 12-month prevalence and associated risk factors for DSM Axis I psychiatric diagnoses between random samples of(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to explore whether post-traumatic growth (PTG) (positive change or benefit finding resulting from trauma) moderates relationships between post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and both depression and quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer survivors. METHODS We interviewed 161 women previously treated for early stage breast cancer.(More)
A growing number of people use the Internet to obtain health information, including information about vaccines. Websites that allow and promote interaction among users are an increasingly popular source of health information. Users of such so-called Web 2.0 applications (e.g. social media), while still in the minority, represent a growing proportion of(More)