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BACKGROUND Because risk perceptions can affect protective behavior and protective behavior can affect risk perceptions, the relations between these 2 constructs are complex and incorrect tests often lead to invalid conclusions. PURPOSE To discuss and carry out appropriate tests of 3 easily confused hypotheses: (a). the behavior motivation hypothesis(More)
Executive Summary Three factors are converging to motivate a more consumer-centered approach to health information. Near universal penetration of information technology in homes and work places, strong demands by some patients to have access to their own health information to participate with health care professionals in health care decision making and(More)
BACKGROUND Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in Botswana and elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to examine whether HPV vaccine is acceptable among parents in Botswana, which recently licensed the vaccine to prevent cervical cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2009, around the time the vaccine(More)
INTRODUCTION Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered nicotine delivery devices that have become popular among smokers. We conducted an experiment to understand adult smokers' responses to e-cigarette advertisements and investigate the impact of ads' arguments and imagery. METHODS A U.S. national sample of smokers who had never tried(More)
OBJECTIVE To inform international research and policy, we conducted a meta-analysis of the experimental literature on pictorial cigarette pack warnings. DATA SOURCES We systematically searched 7 computerised databases in April 2013 using several search terms. We also searched reference lists of relevant articles. STUDY SELECTION We included studies that(More)
BACKGROUND Although cervical cancer rates in the United States are highest in Southern and rural areas, research on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability has focused on other geographic areas. METHODS To address this gap, we surveyed women from a rural area in North Carolina with elevated rates of cervical cancer to identify predictors of HPV(More)
PURPOSE Potential barriers to widespread vaccination of adolescent girls against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are poorly understood. We provide an overview of potential barriers to provision of HPV vaccine and empirical data on the concerns of medical practices that may inhibit HPV vaccine provision. METHOD We conducted phone interviews with(More)
The aim of our study was to explore reasons for starting and then stopping electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Among a national sample of 3878 U.S. adults who reported ever trying e-cigarettes, the most common reasons for trying were curiosity (53%); because a friend or family member used, gave, or offered e-cigarettes (34%); and quitting or reducing(More)
BACKGROUND The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is working to introduce new graphic warning labels for cigarette packages, the first change in cigarette warnings in more than 25 years. We sought to examine whether warnings discouraged participants from wanting to smoke and altered perceived likelihood of harms among adolescent males and whether these(More)
PURPOSE While post-treatment breast cancer survivors face up to twice the cancer risk of the general population, modifiable health behaviors may somewhat reduce this risk. We sought to better understand health behaviors that early stage breast cancer survivors engage in to reduce recurrence risk. METHODS Data came from a cross-sectional multi-site survey(More)