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CONTEXT Women using combined estrogen and progestin hormone replacement therapy (CHRT) have an increased risk of breast cancer; however, data on use for long durations and on risk associated with patterns of use are lacking. OBJECTIVE To evaluate relationships between durations and patterns of CHRT use and risk of breast cancer by histological type and(More)
CONTEXT Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing of women having Papanicolaou (Pap) smears showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) has clinical usefulness. Whether HPV DNA testing alone is useful in primary screening remains to be determined. OBJECTIVE To determine the accuracy of HPV DNA testing for detecting cervical(More)
BACKGROUND In the majority of studies, long term, recent use of hormone replacement therapy has been associated with an increased risk of breast carcinoma. However, little attention has been paid to the possibility that the magnitude of this association may vary according to the histologic type of breast carcinoma. METHODS In this population-based(More)
2-Hydroxylated metabolites of estrogen have been shown to have antiangiogenic effects and inhibit tumor cell proliferation, whereas 4-hydroxylated metabolites have been implicated in carcinogenesis. We examined whether polymorphisms in certain genes involved in estrogen metabolism are associated with endometrial cancer risk in a population-based(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the association between first myocardial infarction and the use of antihypertensive agents. DESIGN AND SETTING We conducted a population-based case-control study among enrollees of the Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound (GHC). PATIENTS AND METHODS Cases were hypertensive patients who sustained a first fatal or nonfatal(More)
CONTEXT Studies of long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) suggest an associated increased risk of breast cancer, but whether this association differs according to histologic type of cancer has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the association between HRT and risk of breast cancer varies by HRT formulation and differs across(More)
To elucidate the risk factors for anal cancer, we interviewed and obtained blood specimens from 148 persons with anal cancer and from 166 controls with colon cancer in whom these diseases were diagnosed during 1978-1985. We found that in men, a history of receptive anal intercourse (related to homosexual behavior) was strongly associated with the occurrence(More)
Two recent studies have shown a woman's bone mineral density (BMD) (a composite measure of exposure to many different factors throughout one's lifetime) predicts breast cancer. In a prospective cohort study, we examined whether hip BMD was associated with breast cancer risk among 8203 postmenopausal women. During an average follow-up of 3.7 years, 131(More)
The purpose of this study was to assess: (1) the risk of breast cancer associated with use of ovulation-inducing agents (such as clomiphene citrate) as treatment for infertility; and (2) the risk associated with ovulatory abnormalities that result in infertility. We performed a case-cohort study among 3837 women evaluated for infertility at clinics in(More)
CONTEXT Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney disease in the developed world. Over time, the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) may increase due to the expanding size of the diabetes population or decrease due to the implementation of diabetes therapies. OBJECTIVE To define temporal changes in DKD prevalence in the United States. DESIGN,(More)