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BACKGROUND Several studies assessing volumetric measurements of regional brain structure in bipolar disorder have been published in recent years, but their results have been inconsistent. Our aim was to complete a meta-analysis of regional morphometry in bipolar disorder as assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS We conducted a systematic(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite clear gender differences in the symptoms and course of bipolar affective disorder, studies investigating age at onset by gender have yielded inconsistent results. The authors investigated gender differences in age at onset and incidence of first-episode mania and bipolar disorder in an epidemiological catchment area in southeast London(More)
BACKGROUND Few follow-up studies of depression have evaluated depressive symptomatology over time at both threshold and sub-threshold levels. AIMS To evaluate long-term longitudinal symptomatic course after an episode of severe depression. METHOD A total of 61 participants from a previous study cohort underwent a detailed interview covering the(More)
BACKGROUND The high risk of suicide in bipolar disorder is well recognized, but may have been overestimated. There is conflicting evidence about deaths from other causes and little known about risk factors for suicide. We aimed to estimate suicide and mortality rates in a cohort of bipolar patients and to identify risk factors for suicide. METHOD All(More)
BACKGROUND There has been a relative dearth of epidemiological research into bipolar affective disorder. Furthermore, incidence studies of bipolar disorder have been predominantly retrospective and most only included hospital admission cases. AIMS To determine the incidence of operationally defined bipolar disorder in three areas of the UK and to(More)
Unipolar depression should be viewed as a chronic illness with multiple phases rather than as a relapsing-remitting disorder. Incomplete remission from depression is common, with approximately one third of patients continuing to have residual depression at remission. Patients who have had a depressive episode spend more time with residual depressive(More)
The last few decades have seen a rapid change in our understanding of the epidemiology of bipolar disorder, which has only recently started to achieve major research attention. This article reviews recent developments. In addition to electronic searches using MEDLINE and PsycLIT, references from articles were identified, major journals hand searched, and(More)
Systems biology has developed considerably in the past decade combining the different disciplines of mathematical modelling, computational simulation and biological experimentation facilitating the quantitative analysis of biological systems. This is often severely hampered by the lack of time-resolved data which ultimately leads to problems in validating(More)
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