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BACKGROUND Several studies assessing volumetric measurements of regional brain structure in bipolar disorder have been published in recent years, but their results have been inconsistent. Our aim was to complete a meta-analysis of regional morphometry in bipolar disorder as assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS We conducted a systematic(More)
BACKGROUND The high risk of suicide in bipolar disorder is well recognized, but may have been overestimated. There is conflicting evidence about deaths from other causes and little known about risk factors for suicide. We aimed to estimate suicide and mortality rates in a cohort of bipolar patients and to identify risk factors for suicide. METHOD All(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite clear gender differences in the symptoms and course of bipolar affective disorder, studies investigating age at onset by gender have yielded inconsistent results. The authors investigated gender differences in age at onset and incidence of first-episode mania and bipolar disorder in an epidemiological catchment area in southeast London(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term studies of severe depression have described high rates of non-recovery, recurrence, chronic incapacity and mortality. A more recent cohort was followed-up to ascertain whether the course had improved given developments in pharmacological and psychological treatments in the last 15 years. METHOD Subjects from a cohort of 70 mainly(More)
BACKGROUND Few follow-up studies of depression have evaluated depressive symptomatology over time at both threshold and sub-threshold levels. AIMS To evaluate long-term longitudinal symptomatic course after an episode of severe depression. METHOD A total of 61 participants from a previous study cohort underwent a detailed interview covering the(More)
AIM To examine the clinical course of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) withdrawal and generate management guidelines. DESIGN Review and analysis of all published reports of GHB or GHB precursor withdrawal identified from electronic searches. FINDINGS In total, 38 cases of GHB (n = 28) or GHB precursor (n = 10) withdrawal were identified, 36 of which were(More)
OBJECTIVES to identify the risk factors for hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) virus infections in drug users attending two drug treatment centres in Northwest England, and to evaluate the effect of both needle exchange and hepatitis B vaccination on the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections. METHODS a retrospective, cross-sectional(More)
Four historical convergences are identified in the history of erotomania. According to the first, which lasted from Classical times to the early eighteenth century, erotomania was a 'general disease caused by unrequited love'. According to the second, erotomania was a disease of 'excessive physical love (nymphomania)'; this view remained active well into(More)
OBJECTIVES Numerous long-term studies of depression in psychiatric settings have shown a poor clinical outcome but little emphasis has been placed on psychosocial or functional outcome in studies to date. This article reviews published data on long-term social functioning after depression and considers why psychosocial recovery appears delayed compared with(More)
BACKGROUND Although residual symptoms after remission from depression are common and predict early relapse, little is known about the impact of residual symptoms on longer-term clinical course of depression or social functioning. METHODS Sixty severe recurrent depressives, who remitted from an index episode of depression with residual symptoms or below(More)