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Heterozygous coding mutations in the INS gene that encodes preproinsulin were recently shown to be an important cause of permanent neonatal diabetes. These dominantly acting mutations prevent normal folding of proinsulin, which leads to beta-cell death through endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis. We now report 10 different recessive INS mutations in(More)
We identified the previously unknown structures of ribosylated imidazoleacetic acids in rat, bovine, and human tissues to be imidazole-4-acetic acid-ribotide (IAA-RP) and its metabolite, imidazole-4-acetic acid-riboside. We also found that IAA-RP has physicochemical properties similar to those of an unidentified substance(s) extracted from mammalian tissues(More)
Seventeen relapsing-remitting (R/R) multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and age/sex matched controls were studied every 6 weeks for 2 years. Disease activity, determined both clinically and by serial MRI, was correlated with natural killer (NK) cell functional activity (FA) and phenotype. Mean NK cell FA is significantly lower in MS patients, compared to(More)
The generation of multiple transcripts by mRNA processing has the potential to moderate differences in gene expression both between tissues and at different stages of development. Where gene function is compromised by mutation, the presence of multiple isoforms may influence the resulting phenotype. Heterozygous mutations in the transcription factor(More)
Monogenic causes of autoimmunity provide key insights into the complex regulation of the immune system. We report a new monogenic cause of autoimmunity resulting from de novo germline activating STAT3 mutations in five individuals with a spectrum of early-onset autoimmune disease, including type 1 diabetes. These findings emphasize the critical role of(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS The NEFA-responsive G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) has been implicated in the regulation of inflammation, in the control of incretin secretion and as a predisposing factor influencing the development of type 2 diabetes by regulation of islet cell apoptosis. However, there is still considerable controversy about the tissue(More)
Studies in type 1 diabetes indicate potential disease heterogeneity, notably in the rate of β-cell loss, responsiveness to immunotherapies, and, in limited studies, islet pathology. We sought evidence for different immunological phenotypes using two approaches. First, we defined blood autoimmune response phenotypes by combinatorial, multiparameter analysis(More)
Long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids differ in their propensity to induce beta-cell death in vitro with palmitate (C16:0) being cytotoxic, whereas palmitoleate (C16:1n-7) is cytoprotective. We now show that this cytoprotective capacity extends to a poorly metabolised C16:1n-7 derivative, methyl-palmitoleate (0.25 mM palmitate alone: 92 +/-(More)
GPR120 (Ffar4) has been postulated to represent an important receptor mediating the improved metabolic profile seen upon ingestion of a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). GPR120 is highly expressed in the digestive system, adipose tissue, lung and macrophages and also present in the endocrine pancreas. A new Gpr120 deficient mouse model(More)
T cell-specific antigens as identified by the anti-Leu 1, anti-Leu 2a, and anti-Leu 3a monoclonal antibodies were quantitated in 31 normal control subjects, 21 adults with spinal cord injury, 58 patients with stable multiple sclerosis, 31 patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis, and 15 patients with multiple sclerosis in acute relapse. The only(More)