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We identified the previously unknown structures of ribosylated imidazoleacetic acids in rat, bovine, and human tissues to be imidazole-4-acetic acid-ribotide (IAA-RP) and its metabolite, imidazole-4-acetic acid-riboside. We also found that IAA-RP has physicochemical properties similar to those of an unidentified substance(s) extracted from mammalian tissues(More)
Seventeen relapsing-remitting (R/R) multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and age/sex matched controls were studied every 6 weeks for 2 years. Disease activity, determined both clinically and by serial MRI, was correlated with natural killer (NK) cell functional activity (FA) and phenotype. Mean NK cell FA is significantly lower in MS patients, compared to(More)
Monogenic causes of autoimmunity provide key insights into the complex regulation of the immune system. We report a new monogenic cause of autoimmunity resulting from de novo germline activating STAT3 mutations in five individuals with a spectrum of early-onset autoimmune disease, including type 1 diabetes. These findings emphasize the critical role of(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS The NEFA-responsive G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) has been implicated in the regulation of inflammation, in the control of incretin secretion and as a predisposing factor influencing the development of type 2 diabetes by regulation of islet cell apoptosis. However, there is still considerable controversy about the tissue(More)
Studies in type 1 diabetes indicate potential disease heterogeneity, notably in the rate of β-cell loss, responsiveness to immunotherapies, and, in limited studies, islet pathology. We sought evidence for different immunological phenotypes using two approaches. First, we defined blood autoimmune response phenotypes by combinatorial, multiparameter analysis(More)
Long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids differ in their propensity to induce beta-cell death in vitro with palmitate (C16:0) being cytotoxic, whereas palmitoleate (C16:1n-7) is cytoprotective. We now show that this cytoprotective capacity extends to a poorly metabolised C16:1n-7 derivative, methyl-palmitoleate (0.25 mM palmitate alone: 92 +/-(More)
GPR120 (Ffar4) has been postulated to represent an important receptor mediating the improved metabolic profile seen upon ingestion of a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). GPR120 is highly expressed in the digestive system, adipose tissue, lung and macrophages and also present in the endocrine pancreas. A new Gpr120 deficient mouse model(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease caused by loss of pancreatic β cells via apoptosis while neighboring α cells are preserved. Viral infections by coxsackieviruses (CVB) may contribute to trigger autoimmunity in T1D. Cellular permissiveness to viral infection is modulated by innate antiviral responses, which vary among different cell types. We(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of treatment with interferon beta-1b (IFN-beta) on natural killer (NK) cell function and phenotype in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients, and their relationship to disease activity assessed both clinically and with serial MRI. BACKGROUND NK cells may play a role in the immunopathogenesis of MS. Previously the authors(More)
Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators of β-cell demise in type 1 diabetes, and similar mechanisms are increasingly implicated in type 2 diabetes, where a state of chronic inflammation may persist. It is likely that the actions of anti-inflammatory cytokines are also altered in diabetes. Cytokines are released from immune cells, which may be(More)