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Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a serious concern worldwide, particularly in Asian countries, despite the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). The Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) performed a prospective surveillance study of 2,184 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from(More)
An estimated one-third of the world's population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of tuberculosis. Here, we demonstrate that, unlike wild-type M. tuberculosis, a strain of M. tuberculosis disrupted in the mce1 operon was unable to enter a stable persistent state of infection in mouse lungs. Instead, the mutant(More)
Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance is usually caused by point mutations within the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and/or parE. However, little is known about the worldwide increase in FQ-resistant Escherichia coli or, more specifically, about the geographical distribution of QRDR mutations and the clonal spread of(More)
There is increasing interest in the role of T cell exhaustion and it is well known that the natural history of chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is modulated by CD8(+) T cell immunobiology. There are many pathways that alter the presence of exhaustive T cells and, in particular, they are functionally impaired by inhibitory receptors, such as(More)
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is a curative therapy for various hematologic disorders. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infections are the major complications of SCT, and their close relationship has been suggested. In this study, we evaluated a link between 2 complications in mouse models. The intestinal microbial communities(More)
We have developed a new method to isolate Pneumocystis carinii trophozoites from experimental rat bronchoalveolar lavage specimens by using a Percoll discontinuous gradient and have identified the circulating antigens in experimental rat P. carinii pneumonia. The antigenic components of the trophozoites were compared with those of cysts by immunoblotting. A(More)
Community-acquired infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria, particularly CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli, are a rising concern worldwide. There are few data from Japan on the acquisition of ESBLs in the community or the influx of these bacteria into hospitals. Therefore, we examined the prevalence of ESBL carriage in(More)
OBJECTIVES Antifungal monotherapy with polyenes, azoles or echinocandins is not always effective for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a combination of micafungin and amphotericin B for the primary treatment of IPA in an immunocompromised mouse model. METHODS Female ICR mice were used in(More)
A significant problem in the field of infectious diseases is the increase in fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Escherichia coli. Although mutation of strains and clonal dissemination are supposed to be the cause of this increase, little is known about the prevalence of this organism. We investigated 219 FQ-resistant E. coli strains in Japan and nine Asian(More)
Candida tropicalis is one of the most important Candida species causative of candidemia that is isolated from the blood of patients with hematological malignancies. Candidemia caused by C. tropicalis is known to be highly virulent in neutropenic patients. C. tropicalis has been shown to be favorably sensitive to azole agents in general. Here we discuss 5(More)