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Deletion of Ppm1d, the gene encoding the Wip1 phosphatase, renders cells resistant to transformation and mice resistant to tumor development. Here, we report that deficiency of Wip1 resulted in activation of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. In turn, overexpression of Wip1 was sufficient to reduce activation of the ATM-dependent signaling(More)
BACKGROUND Ror2 is an orphan receptor, belonging to the Ror family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Although Ror2 has been shown to play crucial roles in developmental morphogenesis, the precise signalling events that Ror2 mediates remain elusive. Since Ror2 possesses an extracellular cysteine-rich domain (CRD) that resembles the Wnt-binding sites of the(More)
The antioncogenic Chk2 kinase plays a crucial role in DNA damage-induced cell-cycle checkpoint regulation. Here we show that Chk2 associates with the oncogenic protein Wip1 (wild-type p53-inducible phosphatase 1) (PPM1D), a p53-inducible protein phosphatase. Phosphorylation of Chk2 at threonine68 (Thr68), a critical event for Chk2 activation, which is(More)
An increased glycolytic flux accompanied by activation of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is implicated in chemoresistance of cancer cells. In this study, we found that CD44, a cell surface marker for cancer stem cells, interacts with pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and thereby enhances the glycolytic phenotype of cancer cells that are either deficient in p53(More)
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent primary solid malignant tumor of bone. Its prognosis remains poor in the substantial proportion of patients who do not respond to chemotherapy and novel therapeutic options are therefore needed. We previously established a mouse model that mimics the aggressive behavior of human OS. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent(More)
Cellular differentiation is regulated through activation and repression of defined transcription factors. A hallmark of differentiation is a pronounced change in cell shape, which is determined by dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton. Here we show that regulation of the transcriptional coactivator MKL1 (megakaryoblastic leukemia 1) by actin cytoskeleton(More)
Invasiveness, cellular atypia, and proliferation are hallmarks of malignant gliomas. To effectively target each of these characteristics, it is important to understand their sequence during tumorigenesis. However, because most gliomas are diagnosed at an advanced stage, the chronology of gliomagenesis milestones is not well understood. The aim of the(More)
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in disease recurrence after radiation treatment as a result of intrinsic properties such as high DNA repair capability and antioxidative capacity. It is unclear, however, how CSCs further adapt to escape the toxicity of the repeated irradiation regimens used in clinical practice. Here, we have exposed a(More)
The oncogenic Wip1 phosphatase (PPM1D) is induced upon DNA damage in a p53-dependent manner and is required for inactivation or suppression of DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoint arrest and of apoptosis by dephosphorylating and inactivating phosphorylated Chk2, Chk1, and ATM kinases. It has been reported that arsenic trioxide (ATO), a potent cancer(More)
The targeting of antioxidant systems that allow stem-like cancer cells to avoid the adverse consequences of oxidative stress might be expected to improve the efficacy of cancer treatment. Here, we show that head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells that express variant isoforms of CD44 (CD44v) rely on the activity of the cystine transporter(More)