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Reproductive skew models have been proposed as a unifying framework for understanding animal social systems, but few studies have investigated reproductive skew in a broad evolutionary context. We compiled data on the distribution of mating among males for 31 species of primates and calculated skew indices for each study. We analyzed the determinants of(More)
Reconciliation in primates, a post-conflict affiliative interaction between former opponents, appears to have two functions: (1) to repair relationship damaged by aggression such that animals who share more valuable relationships are more likely to reconcile, and (2) to reduce the post-conflict uncertainty and stress of former combatants. The ’integrated(More)
Recent developments in ecological statistics have reached behavioral ecology, and an increasing number of studies now apply analytical tools that incorporate alternatives to the conventional null hypothesis testing based on significance levels. However, these approaches continue to receive mixed support in our field. Because our statistical choices can(More)
This study investigated post-conflict (PC) behavior among wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of the M-group in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania, and examined what types of behavior characterize the PC situation in this group, and the factors that influence the occurrence of PC affiliation between opponents soon after the end of an aggressive conflict (i.e.,(More)
In many cooperatively breeding species, dominant females suppress reproduction in subordinates. Although it is commonly assumed that aggression from dominant females plays a role in reproductive suppression, little is known about the distribution of aggressive interactions. Here, we investigate the distribution of aggressive and submissive interactions(More)
Numerous studies in group-living animals with stable compositions have demonstrated the complex and dynamic nature of social behaviour. Empirical studies occasionally provide principles that cannot be applied directly to other group-living species. Because of this, researchers are required to address fine-scaled conceptual questions and to incorporate(More)
Various species of primates engage in greeting, a ritualized pattern of nonaggressive behavior that usually occurs during a reunion. Black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza) perform overhead mounting, mounting, and embracing behavior soon after an aggressive act and in nonagonistic situations. We studied the pattern, distribution, and function of the(More)
Owing to its high temporal sensitivity, saliva has distinct advantages for measuring steroids, compared with other noninvasive samples such as urine and feces. Here, we report the validity of assaying salivary cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in captive male chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. For(More)
Although it is difficult for observers to determine how non-human primates use olfaction in a natural environment, sniffing is one clue. In this study, the sniffing behaviors of wild chimpanzees were divided into six categories, and sex differences were found in most categories. Males sniffed more frequently than females in sexual and social situations,(More)
This article reports developmental changes relating to reconciliation and bystanders' affiliation with victims of aggression (i.e., consolation) among 3- to 5-year-old Japanese preschool children. Use of the post-conflict-matched control (PC-MC) method revealed that the frequency with which reconciliation and consolation were offered to a victim increased(More)