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A novel technique was developed for injecting a time-varying conductance into a neuron, to allow quantitative measurement of the processing of synaptic inputs. In current-clamp recording mode, the membrane potential was sampled continuously and used to calculate and update the level of injected current within 60 microseconds, using a real-time computer, so(More)
A cornerstone of Einstein's special relativity is Lorentz invariance-the postulate that all observers measure exactly the same speed of light in vacuum, independent of photon-energy. While special relativity assumes that there is no fundamental length-scale associated with such invariance, there is a fundamental scale (the Planck scale, l(Planck)(More)
Pulsars are born with subsecond spin periods and slow by electromagnetic braking for several tens of millions of years, when detectable radiation ceases. A second life can occur for neutron stars in binary systems. They can acquire mass and angular momentum from their companions, to be spun up to millisecond periods and begin radiating again. We searched(More)
We have detected pulsed X-ray emission from the fastest millisecond pulsar known, PSR B1937+21 (P =1.558 msec), with ASCA. The pulsar is detected as a point source above ∼ 1.7 keV, with no indication of nebulosity. The source flux in the 2–10 keV band is found to be f = (3.7 ± 0.6) × 10 −13 erg s −1 cm −2 , which implies an isotropic luminosity of L x = 4πD(More)
We studied the expression of bcl-2 oncoprotein in the gerbil hippocampus after transient ischemia. Immunostaining using monoclonal antibody raised against bcl-2 oncoprotein revealed intense immunoreactivity in the CA1 area following 2 min of ischemia, which induced tolerance to subsequent ischemia and prevented delayed neuronal death (DND). Following(More)
In order to measure unitary properties of receptor channels at the postsynaptic site, the noise within the decay phases of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in rat hippocampal neurons was studied by nonstationary fluctuation analysis. Least squares scaling of the(More)
1. We studied the effects of polyamine toxins derived from a spider venom on CA1 pyramidal neurons in gerbil hippocampal slices by patch-clamp recording. Joro spider toxin (JSTX) and its synthetic analogue, 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine (Naspm), which are known to block non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (non-NMDA) receptor in a subunit specific manner, were used. 2.(More)
1. To examine the role of the phosphoinositide cascade triggered by disturbed Ca2+ homeostasis in ischaemic neurones, inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (InsP4) was applied to the cytoplasmic face of membrane patches isolated from CA1 pyramidal neurones in the gerbil hippocampus. 2. In outside-out recordings, InsP4 induced an inward current which was(More)
Preconditioning with sublethal ischemia induces tolerance to subsequent lethal ischemia in neurons. We investigated electrophysiologic aspects of the ischemic tolerance phenomenon in the gerbil hippocampus. Gerbils were subjected to 2 minutes of forebrain ischemia (preconditioning ischemia). Some of them were subjected to a subsequent 5 minutes of forebrain(More)
Although it is generally accepted that humans cannot perceive sounds in the frequency range above 20 kHz, the question of whether the existence of such "inaudible" high-frequency components may affect the acoustic perception of audible sounds remains unanswered. In this study, we used noninvasive physiological measurements of brain responses to provide(More)