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A plastid-derived signal plays an important role in the coordinated expression of both nuclear- and chloroplast-localized genes that encode photosynthesis-related proteins. Arabidopsis GUN (genomes uncoupled) loci have been identified as components of plastid-to-nucleus signal transduction. Unlike wild-type plants, gun mutants have nuclear Lhcb1 expression(More)
Phototropins 1 and 2 (phot1 and phot2) function as blue light (BL) photoreceptors for phototropism, chloroplast relocation, stomatal opening and leaf flattening in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phototropin consists of two functional domains, the N-terminal photosensory domain and the C-terminal Ser/Thr kinase domain. However, little is known about the signal(More)
Phytochrome is a ubiquitous photoreceptor of plants and is encoded by a small multigene family. We have shown recently that a functional nuclear localization signal may reside within the COOH-terminal region of a major member of the family, phytochrome B (phyB) (Sakamoto, K., and A. Nagatani. 1996. Plant J. 10:859-868). In the present study, a fusion(More)
Tetrapyrroles such as chlorophyll and heme are co-factors for essential proteins involved in a wide variety of crucial cellular functions. Nearly 2% of the proteins encoded by the Arabidopsis thaliana genome are thought to bind tetrapyrroles, demonstrating their central role in plant metabolism. Although the enzymes required for tetrapyrrole biosynthesis(More)
Phototropins mediate various blue-light responses such as phototropism, chloroplast relocation, stomatal opening and leaf flattening in plants. Phototropins are hydrophilic chromoproteins that are mainly bound to the plasma membrane. One of two phototropins in Arabidopsis thaliana, phot2, associates with the Golgi apparatus in a light-dependent manner. In(More)
To increase their fitness, plants sense ambient light conditions and modulate their developmental processes by utilizing multiple photoreceptors such as phytochrome, cryptochrome and phototropin. Even roots, which are normally not exposed to light, express photoreceptors and can respond to light by developing chloroplasts. In the present study, root(More)
Lhcb and other nuclear genes for chloroplastic proteins are regulated by several signals. Among them, light and retrograde signals from the plastid itself appear to act through closely related mechanisms. To investigate this interaction, we analysed an Arabidopsis mutant, hy1, deficient in plastidic heme oxygenase. hy1 is defective in phytochrome(More)
The plastid plays a vital role in various cellular activities within plant cells including photosynthesis and other metabolic pathways. It is believed that the functional status of the plastid is somehow monitored by the nucleus to optimize the expression of genes encoding plastid proteins. The currently dominant model for plastid-derived signaling(More)
Chloroplast development requires the coordinated expression of nuclear and chloroplastic genes. A hypothesized signal from the chloroplast couples the transcription of certain nuclear genes encoding photosynthetic proteins with chloroplast function. We have previously described an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, gun1, which has a defect in the signal(More)
A plant modulates its developmental processes in response to light by several informational photoreceptors such as phytochrome. Phytochrome is a dimeric chromoprotein which regulates various aspects of plant development from seed germination to flowering. Upon absorption of red light, phytochrome translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and regulates(More)