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Jaw movements and masticatory muscle activity were recorded in freely moving rabbits during limb-licking, chewing, and drinking. The limb-licking movement was characterized by rhythmical jaw movement and digastric burst and relatively small masseter activity. The mean cycle time was 292 ms +/- 11.0 (mean +/- SE: n = 7) and was longer than that in chewing(More)
Masseter and digastric muscle activities and jaw movement trajectories were recorded in freely moving rabbits during eating. The patterns in these trajectories and activities were similar to those described in previous studies on restrained animals. Although the duration of masticatory sequences, which started with food intake followed by grinding movements(More)
This paper investigates the influence of human resource management on learning from internal and external sources of knowledge. Learning for innovation is a key ingredient of catching-up processes. The analysis builds on survey data about pharmaceutical firms in Mexico. Results show that the influence of human resource management is contingent on the(More)
A system for simultaneously recording mandibular position in the sagittal plane together with masticatory muscle activity was designed and tested in rabbits. Two small magnetic sensors were implanted in the maxillary bone and a powerful magnet made of a rare earth metal attached to the mandibular central incisors. The magnetic sensors detected the(More)
Reflex changes in masticatory muscles were investigated in naturally behaving rabbits while chewing soft food (bread) and hard food (raw rice). To study peripheral control mechanisms of mastication, reflex changes in masticatory muscles were correlated with the jaw movement trajectories. When the hard food was tested, the closing muscle was activated(More)
In the past, research on changes in relative importance among broad three sectors— agriculture, industry, and service—showed general patterns of a country's structural transformation along with economic development. However, there has been devoid of empirical studies investigating in the structural change within the manufacturing sector, which often plays a(More)
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of(More)
R e s e a r c h a n d S t a t i s t i c s B r a n c h w o r k i n g p a p e r 1 6 / 2 0 0 9 The designations employed, descriptions and classifications of countries, and the presentation of the material in this report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations Industrial Development(More)
This paper investigates the influence of human resource management practices on the likelihood that a firm performs in-house R&D. The latter is broadly interpreted as learning-a mechanism promoting absorptive capacity and supporting technology capability-building in latecomer firms. The use of distinct definitions of R&D implies different knowledge(More)
To understand the modulation of periodontal mechanoreceptor activity on mastication, the jaw-opening reflex (JOR) evoked by electrical stimulation of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) was studied during chewing in freely behaving rabbits. Spontaneous chewing movements were intact from the IAN stimulation below two times the threshold (T) which was measured(More)