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N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) is essential for the survival of eukaryotes and the production of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type-1(HIV-1) by the host cell. In this study, we found decreases in the mRNA levels of human NMT isoforms and the NMT activities in the course of HIV-1 infection in the human T-cell line, CEM. Investigating the cytotoxic(More)
The N-myristoylation of the N-terminal of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Pr55(gag) by human N-myristoyltransferase (hNMT) is a prerequisite modification for HIV-1 production. hNMT consists of multiple isozymes encoded by hNMT1 and hNMT2. The hNMT1 isozyme consists of long, medium, and short forms. Here, we investigated which isozyme is crucial(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain LAV-1 (HIV-1(LAV-1)) particles were collected by ultracentrifugation, treated with subtilisin, and then purified by Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography to remove microvesicles. The lysate of the purified HIV-1(LAV-1) particles was subjected to two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and stained. The 2D(More)
The Tat protein has several functional domains, one of which is the cysteine-rich domain that is a highly conserved region in spite of the presence of many subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Although the cysteine-rich domain is a potential site for Zn(2+) binding, it is controversial whether Zn(2+) is substantially essential for the(More)
When a biotinylated FRET probe based on a peptide-thrombin binding aptamer conjugate was introduced together with streptavidin and biotinylated nuclear export signal peptide into HeLa cells, the resulting ternary complex enabled visualization of K(+) concentration changes in the cell.
A cyclic closed-chain dodecapeptide (cDDR5) mimicking the conformation-specific domain of CCR5 was prepared in which Gly-Asp, as a dipeptide forming a spacer arm, links the amino and carboxyl termini of the decapeptidyl linear chain (Arg(168) to Thr(177)) derived from the undecapeptidyl arch (UPA; Arg(168) to Cys(178)) of extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) in(More)
The process by which the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) conical core dissociates is called uncoating, but not much is known about this process. Here, we show that the uncoating process requires the interaction of the capsid (CA) protein with the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 that specifically recognizes the phosphorylated serine/threonine(More)
Humans and some Old World monkeys, chimpanzees, and cynomolgus macaques, are susceptible to oral poliovirus (PV) infection. Interestingly, rhesus macaques, although sensitive to injected PV, are not susceptible to gut infection. Not much is known about the initial event of gut infection by PV in rhesus macaques so far. Here, we show that PV can efficiently(More)
N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) isozymes, i.e., NMT1 and NMT2, are essential host factors for the AIDS-causing human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), by which the viral proteins Pr55(gag) and Nef are N-myristoylated. N-Myristoylation is important for the membrane targeting of modified proteins. Since it is predicted that approximately 0.5% of all(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protein is the principal structural component of the HIV particle. Localization of the Pr55(Gag) protein to the plasma membrane initiates virus assembly. Recent studies indicated that d-myo-phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) regulates Pr55(Gag) localization and assembly. We determined the(More)