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OBJECTIVE Arterial-venous specification in the embryo has been assumed to depend on the influence of fluid mechanical forces, but its cellular and molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Our previous in vitro study revealed that fluid shear stress induces endothelial cell (EC) differentiation by murine embryonic stem (ES) cells. In the present(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are exposed to fluid-mechanical forces, such as cyclic strain and shear stress, during the process of embryonic development but much remains to be elucidated concerning the role of fluid-mechanical forces in ES cell differentiation. Here, we show that cyclic strain induces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation in(More)
We developed a compliant tube-type flow-loading apparatus that allows simultaneous application of physiological levels of shear stress and cyclic stretch to cultured cells and examined gene responses to a combination of the two forces. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to shear stress and/or cyclic stretch for 24h, and changes in the mRNA(More)
BACKGROUND Vector flow mapping (VFM) is a novel echocardiographic technology which enables visualization of the intraventricular flow velocity vector. Dissipative energy loss (EL) derived from the velocity vector field of intraventricular blood flow is considered to reflect the efficiency of blood flow, and could be an indicator of left ventricular(More)
In the general stress response of Bacillus subtilis, which is governed by the sigma factor σ(B), stress signalling is relayed by a cascade of Rsb proteins that regulate σ(B) activity. RsbX, a PPM II phosphatase, halts the response by dephosphorylating the stressosome composed of RsbR and RsbS. The crystal structure of RsbX reveals a reorganization of the(More)
Osteopontin (OPN) expression is increased in kidneys of rats with ethylene glycol (EG) induced hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of OPN knockdown by in vivo transfection of OPN siRNA on deposition of CaOx crystals in the kidneys. Hyperoxaluria was induced in 6-week-old male(More)
Endothelial cells (ECs) release ATP in response to shear stress, a mechanical force generated by blood flow, and the ATP released modulates EC functions through activation of purinoceptors. The molecular mechanism of the shear stress-induced ATP release, however, has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we have demonstrated that cell surface ATP(More)
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mobilized from bone marrow to peripheral blood and contribute to angiogenesis in tissues. In the process, EPCs are exposed to the shear stress generated by blood flow and tissue fluid flow. Our previous study showed that shear stress promotes differentiation of EPCs into mature endothelial cells. In this study, we(More)
Mutating arginine 52 to glutamine (R52Q) in photoactive yellow protein (PYP) increases the pK(a) of the chromophore by 1 pH unit. The structure of the R52Q PYP mutant was determined by X-ray crystallography and was compared to the structure of wild-type PYP to assess the role of R52 in pK(a) regulation. The essential differences between R52Q and the wild(More)
Although liver fibrosis causes significant morbidity in the late postoperative period of the Fontan procedure, the diagnostic value of hyaluronic acid (HA), a serum marker of liver fibrosis, has not been established in Fontan patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether increased serum HA concentration in Fontan patients is associated with(More)