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It has been shown that osteopontin (OPN) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the molecular mechanism of OPN action is yet to be elucidated. Splenic monocytes obtained from arthritic mice exhibited a significant capacity for cell migration toward thrombin-cleaved OPN but not toward full-length OPN. Migratory(More)
Adenosine has anti-inflammatory activity. Adenosine deaminase (EC metabolizes extracellular adenosine, resulting in an exacerbation of inflammation. Consequently, it was hypothesized that adenosine deaminase inhibitors produce anti-inflammatory activity by increasing extracellular adenosine concentration. This group recently developed a(More)
The addition of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) to salted squid muscle paste greatly strengthened the elasticity of the thermal gel, which was produced by the preferential crosslinking of myosin heavy chains through a two-step heating process that consisted of setting at 40°C and subsequent heating to 80°C or 90°C. Starch increased the breaking strength(More)
Stable anhydrous lactulose was produced from lactulose trihydrate by stepwise heating on a fluidized bed. The processes were performed on stable powder forms. The anhydrous lactulose was characterized by an opaque white appearance, a coarse surface structure with random cracks and indentations, a high degree of crystallization, stability under humid(More)
We disclose optimization efforts based on the novel non-nucleoside adenosine deaminase (ADA) inhibitor, 4 (K(i) = 680 nM). Structure-based drug design utilizing the crystal structure of the 4/ADA complex led to discovery of 5 (K(i) = 11 nM, BA = 30% in rats). Furthermore, from metabolic considerations, we discovered two inhibitors with improved oral(More)
The activation of downstream signaling pathways of both T cell receptor (TCR) and interleukin 4 receptor (IL-4R) is essential for T helper type 2 (Th2) cell development, which is central to understanding immune responses against helminthic parasites and in allergic and autoimmune diseases. However, little is known about how these two distinct signaling(More)
To clarify the pathogenesis of excessive proliferation of extrinsic nerve fibers in the aganglionic colon of patients with Hirschsprung’s disease (HD), we immunohistochemically determined the role that exocytosis-related proteins play in the regulation of exocytosis using the antibody to HPC-1/syntaxin 1A, an exocytosis-related protein. Localization of(More)
Interleukin 5 (IL-5) plays a unique role in allergic inflammatory responses, and the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of IL-5-producing cells is crucial for the regulation of allergic disorders. Differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into type-2 helper (Th2) cells is accompanied by chromatin remodeling including hyperacetylation(More)
Many studies have examined the efficacy of tacrolimus in rats and dogs, but few have reported its evaluation in cynomolgus monkeys. The aim of this study was to clarify the efficacy of tacrolimus in a cynomolgus monkey renal transplant model based on the efficacy of various doses. Monkeys that had undergone renal transplant were treated with a vehicle or(More)
BACKGROUND Nishiki-nezumi Cinnamon/Nagoya (NC/Nga) mice raised in nonair-controlled conventional circumstances spontaneously develop atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE We wanted to identify the critical intracellular signaling molecules in T cells that induce atopic dermatitis-like skin(More)