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Adenosine has anti-inflammatory activity. Adenosine deaminase (EC metabolizes extracellular adenosine, resulting in an exacerbation of inflammation. Consequently, it was hypothesized that adenosine deaminase inhibitors produce anti-inflammatory activity by increasing extracellular adenosine concentration. This group recently developed a(More)
It has been shown that osteopontin (OPN) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the molecular mechanism of OPN action is yet to be elucidated. Splenic monocytes obtained from arthritic mice exhibited a significant capacity for cell migration toward thrombin-cleaved OPN but not toward full-length OPN. Migratory(More)
The effect of experimental bladder outflow obstruction on membrane electrical activity of guinea pig detrusor smooth muscle was studied. Using an intracellular microelectrode technique, action potentials were recorded from single smooth muscle cells to determine the effect of outflow obstruction on action potential (AP) kinetics. Bladder outflow obstruction(More)
We disclose optimization efforts based on the novel non-nucleoside adenosine deaminase (ADA) inhibitor, 4 (K(i) = 680 nM). Structure-based drug design utilizing the crystal structure of the 4/ADA complex led to discovery of 5 (K(i) = 11 nM, BA = 30% in rats). Furthermore, from metabolic considerations, we discovered two inhibitors with improved oral(More)
The activation of downstream signaling pathways of both T cell receptor (TCR) and interleukin 4 receptor (IL-4R) is essential for T helper type 2 (Th2) cell development, which is central to understanding immune responses against helminthic parasites and in allergic and autoimmune diseases. However, little is known about how these two distinct signaling(More)
Many studies have examined the efficacy of tacrolimus in rats and dogs, but few have reported its evaluation in cynomolgus monkeys. The aim of this study was to clarify the efficacy of tacrolimus in a cynomolgus monkey renal transplant model based on the efficacy of various doses. Monkeys that had undergone renal transplant were treated with a vehicle or(More)
To clarify the pathogenesis of excessive proliferation of extrinsic nerve fibers in the aganglionic colon of patients with Hirschsprung’s disease (HD), we immunohistochemically determined the role that exocytosis-related proteins play in the regulation of exocytosis using the antibody to HPC-1/syntaxin 1A, an exocytosis-related protein. Localization of(More)
A method is described to record bladder smooth muscle action potential (AP) data and subsequently in digitized form analyze the constitutive elements of the AP. Manipulation of digitized data can give accurate descriptive information on the AP configuration and kinetics. In the future this type of analysis will hopefully lead to more precise, quantitative(More)
Interleukin 5 (IL-5) plays a unique role in allergic inflammatory responses, and the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of IL-5-producing cells is crucial for the regulation of allergic disorders. Differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into type-2 helper (Th2) cells is accompanied by chromatin remodeling including hyperacetylation(More)