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It has been shown that osteopontin (OPN) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the molecular mechanism of OPN action is yet to be elucidated. Splenic monocytes obtained from arthritic mice exhibited a significant capacity for cell migration toward thrombin-cleaved OPN but not toward full-length OPN. Migratory(More)
Adenosine has anti-inflammatory activity. Adenosine deaminase (EC metabolizes extracellular adenosine, resulting in an exacerbation of inflammation. Consequently, it was hypothesized that adenosine deaminase inhibitors produce anti-inflammatory activity by increasing extracellular adenosine concentration. This group recently developed a(More)
Many studies have examined the efficacy of tacrolimus in rats and dogs, but few have reported its evaluation in cynomolgus monkeys. The aim of this study was to clarify the efficacy of tacrolimus in a cynomolgus monkey renal transplant model based on the efficacy of various doses. Monkeys that had undergone renal transplant were treated with a vehicle or(More)
The activation of downstream signaling pathways of both T cell receptor (TCR) and interleukin 4 receptor (IL-4R) is essential for T helper type 2 (Th2) cell development, which is central to understanding immune responses against helminthic parasites and in allergic and autoimmune diseases. However, little is known about how these two distinct signaling(More)
Structural snapshots corresponding to various states enable elucidation of the molecular recognition mechanism of enzymes. Adenosine deaminase has two distinct conformations, an open form and a closed form, although it has so far been unclear what factors influence adaptation of the alternative conformations. Herein, we have determined the first nonligated(More)
Interleukin 5 (IL-5) plays a unique role in allergic inflammatory responses, and the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of IL-5-producing cells is crucial for the regulation of allergic disorders. Differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into type-2 helper (Th2) cells is accompanied by chromatin remodeling including hyperacetylation(More)
This study investigates the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of and protection from T cell activation-associated hepatic injury. When BALB/c mice were given a single intravenous injection of concanavalin A (Con A) (>10.3 rag/mouse), they developed acute hepatic injury as assessed by a striking increase in plasma transaminase levels within 24 h.(More)
We searched for non-nucleoside inhibitors of adenosine deaminase by rational structure-based de novo design and succeeded in the discovery of 1-(1-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2-butyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide (FR221647: K(i)=5.9 microM to human ADA) as a novel inhibitor with moderate activity and good pharmacokinetics compared with the known inhibitors pentostatin and(More)
The effects of AS1892802, a selective Rho-associated coiled coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, on knee cartilage damage and pain behavior were examined in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). Monoiodoacetate (MIA) was intraarticularly injected into the right knee joints of rats. ROCK I and II mRNA levels increased in knee joints of MIA-injected rats. Our newly(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Symptoms of functional dyspepsia (FD) are highly prevalent in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the effects of therapeutic agents for IBS on the pathophysiology of FD are unclear. In this study, therefore, we examined the effects of ramosetron, a serotonin 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, on corticotropin releasing factor(More)