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The basal ganglia contribute to the suppression and initiation of saccadic eye movements through the inhibitory connection from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) to the superior colliculus. This mechanism consists of serial and parallel connections, which are mostly inhibitory and GABAergic. Dopamine is known to exert powerful modulatory effects on(More)
The present study provides evidence that the saccadic signals in the caudate nucleus (caudate) are transmitted to the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). We inserted two microelectrodes into the caudate and SNr of monkeys trained to perform saccade tasks. After identifying the functional characteristics of a SNr neuron recorded, we stimulated the(More)
The synaptic organization of the saccade-related neuronal circuit between the superior colliculus (SC) and the brainstem saccade generator was examined in an awake monkey using a saccadic, midflight electrical-stimulation method. When microstimulation (50–100 μA, single pulse) was applied to the SC during a saccade, a small, conjugate contraversive eye(More)
Unilateral dopamine deficiency of the basal ganglia produced a profound impairment of visual search. Dopaminergic innervation of the monkey striatum was deprived unilaterally by infusing 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) into the caudate nucleus. The monkeys were shown a mirror in which they saw their own image and surroundings. Compared(More)
Unilateral infusion of MPTP into the monkey caudate nucleus produced deficits in task-specific saccades, in addition to the deficits in spontaneous eye movements (preceding article). We trained three monkeys to perform two kinds of saccade tasks: (1) saccade task for eliciting visually guided saccades and (2) delayed saccade task for eliciting memory-guided(More)
We recorded saccade-related neurons in the vicinity of the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum in two monkeys trained to perform visually guided saccades and memory-guided saccades. Among 76 saccade-related neurons, 38 showed presaccadic bursts in all directions. More than 80% of such burst neurons were located in the area ventral to, not inside, the dentate(More)
Association between clinical characteristics and types of the tau gene mutation has been observed in frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). P301L mutation seldom causes parkinsonism as a leading symptom; instead it usually causes personality changes with aggressiveness and disinhibition. We experienced two patients of(More)
Sirs: The inability to close the eyes voluntarily is known as “apraxia” of eye closure, although it remains uncertain whether this phenomenon is true apraxia [1]. Recently we encountered a man with a right anterior cerebral artery infarction who developed a distinct disorder of the eyelid motor control. He could not close his left eye when asked to close(More)
Polymorphism at codon 219 lysine in prion protein (PrP) is considered to affect the clinicopathological features of prion diseases including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and to have an inhibiting effect on the pathogenesis of these diseases. We describe the first autopsied case of dura mater graft-associated CJD (dCJD) with heterozygosity of lysine at(More)
The basal ganglia contribute to the suppression and initiation of saccadic eye movements through the inhibitory connection from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) to the superior colliculus. This mechanism consists of serial and parallel connections, which are mostly inhibitory and GA-BAergic. Dopamine is known to exert powerful modulatory effects(More)