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Sediment-covered basalt on the flanks of mid-ocean ridges constitutes most of Earth's oceanic crust, but the composition and metabolic function of its microbial ecosystem are largely unknown. By drilling into 3.5-million-year-old subseafloor basalt, we demonstrated the presence of methane- and sulfur-cycling microbes on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca(More)
We review physical and chemical constraints on the mechanisms of melt extraction from the mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges. Compositional constraints from MORB and abyssal peridotite are summarized, followed by observations of melt extraction features in the mantle, and constraints from the physical properties of partially molten peridotite. We address two(More)
Depletion of Nb relative to K and La is characteristic of lavas in subduction-related magmatic arcs, as distinct from mid-ocean ridge basalts. Nb depletion is also characteristic of the continental crust. This and other geochemical similarities between the continental crust and high-Mg# andesite magmas found in arcs suggests that the continental crust may(More)
The strontium-to-calcium ratio (Sr/Ca) of reef coral skeleton is commonly used as a paleothermometer to estimate sea surface temperatures (SSTs) at crucial times in Earth's climate history. However, these estimates are disputed, because uptake of Sr into coral skeleton is thought to be affected by algal symbionts (zooxanthellae) living in the host tissue.(More)
[1] Abstract: We studied trace element geochemistry and petrology of the crust-mantle transition zone (MTZ) in the Samail massif of the Oman ophiolite to constrain the location where different primitive magmas mix beneath an oceanic spreading ridge. The MTZ is the deepest location where crystallization took place and thus is an ideal place to determine the(More)
[1] Analysis of the compositions of crystals and melt inclusions from a suite of 40 gabbroic and wehrlitic nodules in a single eruptive body provides a record of concurrent mixing and crystallization of melts under NE Iceland. The crystals in the nodules have a similar range of compositions to those found as phenocrysts in the flow, and many of the nodules(More)
The tectonic setting in which the first continental crust formed, and the extent to which modern processes of arc magmatism at convergent plate margins were operative on the early Earth, are matters of debate. Geochemical studies have shown that felsic rocks in both Archaean high-grade metamorphic ('grey gneiss') and low-grade granite-greenstone terranes(More)
Most of Earth's present-day crust formed at mid-ocean ridges. High-precision uranium-lead dating of zircons in gabbros from the Vema Fracture Zone on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge reveals that the crust there grew in a highly regular pattern characterized by shallow melt delivery. Combined with results from previous dating studies, this finding suggests that two(More)
Volume di€usion rates of Ce, Sm, Dy, and Yb have been measured in a natural pyrope-rich garnet single crystal (Py 71 Alm 16 Gr 13) at a pressure of 2.8 GPa and temperatures of 1,200±1,450 °C. Pieces of a single gem-quality pyrope megacryst were polished, coated with a thin layer of polycrystalline REE oxide, then annealed in a piston cylinder device for(More)