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Filamentous tau inclusions are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related tauopathies, but earlier pathologies may herald disease onset. To investigate this, we studied wild-type and P301S mutant human tau transgenic (Tg) mice. Filamentous tau lesions developed in P301S Tg mice at 6 months of age, and progressively accumulated in association with(More)
The amyloid-β peptide Aβ42 is known to be a primary amyloidogenic and pathogenic agent in Alzheimer's disease. However, the role of Aβ43, which is found just as frequently in the brains of affected individuals, remains unresolved. We generated knock-in mice containing a pathogenic presenilin-1 R278I mutation that causes overproduction of Aβ43. Homozygosity(More)
Accumulation of intracellular tau fibrils has been the focus of research on the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related tauopathies. Here, we have developed a class of tau ligands, phenyl/pyridinyl-butadienyl-benzothiazoles/benzothiazoliums (PBBs), for visualizing diverse tau inclusions in brains of living patients with AD or(More)
Two styrylbenzene derivatives, (E,E)-1-fluoro-2,5-bis-(3-hydroxycarbonyl-4-hydroxy)styrylbenzene (FSB) and (E,E)-1-bromo-2,5-bis(3-hydroxycarbonyl-4-hydroxy)styrylbenzene-alpha,alpha'-(13)C(2) ([(13)C]BSB), were synthesized for use as a histochemical stain to detect amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain sections. An analysis of fluorescence(More)
Expression of somatostatin in the brain declines during aging in various mammals including apes and humans. A prominent decrease in this neuropeptide also represents a pathological characteristic of Alzheimer disease. Using in vitro and in vivo paradigms, we show that somatostatin regulates the metabolism of amyloid beta peptide (Abeta), the primary(More)
A subtle but chronic alteration in metabolic balance between amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) anabolic and catabolic activities is thought to cause Abeta accumulation, leading to a decade-long pathological cascade of Alzheimer disease. However, it is still unclear whether a reduction of the catabolic activity of Abeta in the brain causes neuronal dysfunction in(More)
The accumulation of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta), a physiological peptide, in the brain is a triggering event leading to the pathological cascade of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and appears to be caused by an increase in the anabolic activity, as seen in familial AD cases or by a decrease in catabolic activity. Neprilysin is a rate-limiting peptidase involved(More)
Metabolism of amyloid-beta peptide (A beta) is closely associated with the pathology and etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neprilysin is the only rate-limiting catabolic peptidase proven by means of reverse genetics to participate in A beta metabolism in vivo. The aim of the present study is to assess whether possible spatial changes in neprilysin level(More)
Formation of senile plaques composed of amyloid beta peptide, a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease, in human brains precedes disease onset by many years. Noninvasive detection of such plaques could be critical in presymptomatic diagnosis and could contribute to early preventive treatment strategies. Using amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic(More)
Both mislocalization of TDP-43 and downregulation of RNA-editing enzyme ADAR2 co-localize in the motor neurons of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, but how they are linked is not clear. Here we demonstrate that activation of calpain, a Ca2+-dependent cysteine protease, by upregulation of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors generates carboxy-terminal-cleaved(More)