Nobuhiro Nakao

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Molecular mechanisms regulating animal seasonal breeding in response to changing photoperiod are not well understood. Rapid induction of gene expression of thyroid-hormone-activating enzyme (type 2 deiodinase, DIO2) in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is the earliest event yet recorded in the photoperiodic signal(More)
The molecular mechanisms responsible for seasonal time measurement have yet to be fully described. Recently, we used differential analysis to identify that the type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2) gene is responsible for the photoperiodic response of gonads in Japanese quail. It was found that expression of Dio2 in the mediobasal hypothalamus is induced(More)
Photorefractoriness is the insensitivity of gonadal development to the stimulatory effects of long photoperiods in birds and to the inhibitory effects of short photoperiods in small mammals. Its molecular mechanism remains unknown. Recently, it has been shown that reciprocal expression of thyroid hormone-activating enzyme [type 2 deiodinase (Dio2)] and(More)
The molecular mechanisms underlying photoperiodic time measurement are not well understood in any organism. Relatively recently, however, it has become clear that thyroid hormones play an important role in photoperiodism, and in a previous study we reported that long daylengths in Japanese quail increase hypothalamic levels of T(3) and of the thyroid(More)
In most animals that live in temperate regions, reproduction is under photoperiodic control. In long-day breeders such as Japanese quail and Djungarian hamsters, type 2 deiodinase (Dio2) plays an important role in the mediobasal hypothalamus, catalyzing the conversion of prohormone T4 to bioactive T3 to regulate the photoperiodic response of the gonads.(More)
Animals measure photoperiod (daylength) and adapt to seasonal changes in the environment by altering their physiology and behavior accordingly. Although this photoperiodic response has long been of interest, the underlying mechanism has only recently begun to be uncovered at the molecular level. Japanese quail provide an excellent model to study the(More)
Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor, stimulates GH secretion. The ghrelin gene is expressed most abundantly in stomach. The mRNA is also detected in other tissues and cell lines. However, the mechanism of the transcriptional regulation of the ghrelin gene has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we have(More)
Using the mPer1::luc real-time monitoring technique, the authors observed the bimodal patterns of mPer1 bioluminescence on each side of the SCN, in parallel with maintaining synchronization between the left and right sides of the SCN under an artificial light:dark:light:dark (LDLD) 7:5:7:5 condition. In situ hybridization analysis of mPer1 and mBmal1 mRNA(More)
Many animals that breed seasonally measure the day length (photoperiod) and use these measurements as predictive information to prepare themselves for annual breeding. For several decades, thyroid hormones have been known to be involved in this biological process; however, their precise roles remain unknown. Recent molecular analyses have revealed that(More)
It is now known that circadian clocks are localized not only in the central pacemaker but also in peripheral organs. An example of a clock-dependent peripheral organ is the ovary of domestic poultry in which ovulation is induced by the positive feedback action of ovarian progesterone on the neuroendocrine system to generate a preovulatory release of LH(More)