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Atg9 is a transmembrane protein that is essential for autophagy. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it has recently been revealed that Atg9 exists on cytoplasmic small vesicles termed Atg9 vesicles. To identify the components of Atg9 vesicles, we purified the Atg9 vesicles and subjected them to mass spectrometry. We found that their protein(More)
We evaluated the evolutionary conservation of glycine myristoylation within eukaryotic sequences. Our large-scale cross-genome analyses, available as MYRbase, show that the functional spectrum of myristoylated proteins is currently largely underestimated. We give experimental evidence for in vitro myristoylation of selected predictions. Furthermore, we(More)
BACKGROUND The myelin sheath is a multilamellar membrane structure wrapped around the axon, enabling the saltatory conduction of nerve impulses in vertebrates. Myelin basic protein, one of the most abundant myelin-specific proteins, is an intrinsically disordered protein that has been shown to bind calmodulin. In this study, we focus on a 19-mer synthetic(More)
Prior to the somite segmentation, the cells in the anterior presomitic mesoderm (PSM) express a set of genes that is required for defining the segmental border and polarity of the prospective somite. However, little is known how the expression of these genes is repressed upon segmentation. Here we report that Bowline, an associate protein of the(More)
Investigating proteins 'at work' in a living environment at atomic resolution is a major goal of molecular biology, which has not been achieved even though methods for the three-dimensional (3D) structure determination of purified proteins in single crystals or in solution are widely used. Recent developments in NMR hardware and methodology have enabled the(More)
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a key enzyme in nitric oxide-mediated signal transduction in mammalian cells. Its catalytic activity is regulated both by regulatory proteins, such as calmodulin and caveolin, and by a variety of post-translational modifications including phosphorylation and acylation. We have previously shown that the(More)
Interleukins 4 and 13 (IL-4 and IL-13) are related cytokines important for Th2 immune responses and encoded by adjacent genes on human chromosome 5. Efforts were made previously to detect these genes in fish, but research was hampered by a lack of sequence conservation. A Tetraodon nigrovirides (green spotted pufferfish) gene was annotated as IL-4 by Li et(More)
An efficient expression system of rat calmodulin in Escherichia coli is presented. To express rat calmodulin cDNA, we employed a pET expression vector which contains the T7 phage promoter and terminator. After transformation of E. coli BL21(DE3) strain which carries T7 phage RNA polymerase inducible with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside, induction of(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, and its N-terminus plays a critical role in the intracellular stability of the enzyme. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which the N-terminal region of TH affects this stability. TH molecules phosphorylated at their Ser31 and Ser40 were localized(More)
Myelin basic protein (MBP) is present between the cytoplasmic leaflets of the compact myelin membrane in both the peripheral and central nervous systems, and characterized to be intrinsically disordered in solution. One of the best-characterized protein ligands for MBP is calmodulin (CaM), a highly acidic calcium sensor. We pulled down MBP from human brain(More)