Nobuhiko Ohno

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In the human disorder multiple sclerosis (MS) and in the model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), macrophages predominate in demyelinated areas and their numbers correlate to tissue damage. Macrophages may be derived from infiltrating monocytes or resident microglia, yet are indistinguishable by light microscopy and surface phenotype. It is(More)
Energy production presents a formidable challenge to axons as their mitochondria are synthesized and degraded in neuronal cell bodies. To meet the energy demands of nerve conduction, small mitochondria are transported to and enriched at mitochondrial stationary sites located throughout the axon. In this study, we investigated whether size and motility of(More)
Axonal degeneration contributes to permanent neurological disability in inherited and acquired diseases of myelin. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed as a major contributor to this axonal degeneration. It remains to be determined, however, if myelination, demyelination, or remyelination alter the size and distribution of axonal mitochondrial(More)
The fundamental roles of Schwann cells during peripheral nerve formation and regeneration have been recognized for more than 100 years, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that integrate Schwann cell and axonal functions continue to be elucidated. Derived from the embryonic neural crest, Schwann cells differentiate into myelinating cells or bundle(More)
Chromosome territories (CTs) are intranuclear subregions occupied by individual chromosomes in an interphase cell. In this study, we investigated intranuclear CT positionings of chromosomes 10 (CS10), 18 (CS18), and 19 (CS19) in epithelial cells from four normal thyroid tissue (NT), four adenomatous goiters (AGs), six papillary carcinomas (PCs), and two(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Here, we discuss the recent developments in axonal mitochondrial response to demyelination and remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS), and following experimental demyelination as well as myelination. RECENT FINDINGS There is a gathering body of evidence implicating an energy-deficient state in the pathogenesis of MS, and mitochondrial(More)
Axonal degeneration is a primary cause of permanent neurological disability in individuals with the CNS demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. Dysfunction of axonal mitochondria and imbalanced energy demand and supply are implicated in degeneration of chronically demyelinated axons. The purpose of this study was to define the roles of mitochondrial(More)
Mitochondrial content within axons increases following demyelination in the central nervous system, presumably as a response to the changes in energy needs of axons imposed by redistribution of sodium channels. Myelin sheaths can be restored in demyelinated axons and remyelination in some multiple sclerosis lesions is extensive, while in others it is(More)
DNA-negative Dane particles have been observed in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected sera. The capsids of the empty particles are thought to be composed of core protein but have not been studied in detail. In the present study, the protein composition of the particles was examined using new enzyme immunoassays for the HBV core antigen (HBcAg) and for the HBV(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore myelin components and mitochondrial changes within the central nervous system in patients with well-characterized mitochondrial disorders due to nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. DESIGN Immunohistochemical analysis, histochemical analysis, mtDNA sequencing, and real-time and long-range polymerase chain reaction were(More)