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Respiratory responses to hypoxia and/or hypercapnia, and their relationship to neural activity in the ventrolateral medulla (VLM), which includes the respiratory center, have not yet been elucidated in detail. We herein examined respiratory responses during exposure of 10% O2 (hypoxia), 10% CO2 (hypercapnia), and 10% O2-10% CO2 (hypercapnic hypoxia) using(More)
Seasonal changes in the histochemical properties of the vomeronasal and olfactory epithelia of the Japanese striped snake were examined in four seasons, viz. the reproductive, pre-hibernating, hibernating and post-hibernating seasons. In the vomeronasal and olfactory supporting cells, secretory granules were much more abundant in the hibernating season than(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical and produced from L-arginine by nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Since NO is recently suggested to be involved in olfactory perception, the expression of eNOS, an isoform of NOS, was examined in the rat olfactory epithelium. The activity of NADPH-diaphorase was also examined as a marker of NOS. In the dorsomedial region of(More)
Effects of low protein intake on the development of the remaining kidney in subtotally (5/6) nephrectomized immature rats were examined. Three week-old weaning rats were kept on a diet containing either 12% (Lp rats) or 18% (Np rats) protein for 4 or 8 weeks after subtotal nephrectomy. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration was determined at 2, 4, 6, and 8(More)
The carotid body is a peripheral chemoreceptor that detects decreases in arterial pO2 and subsequently activates the carotid sinus nerve. The hypoxia-evoked activity of the carotid sinus nerve has been suggested to be modulated by glutamate. In the present study, we investigate the immunohistochemical localization of vesicular glutamate transporters in the(More)
The sympathetic ganglion contains small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells derived from the neural crest. We morphologically characterize SIF cells and focus on their relationship with ganglionic cells, preganglionic nerve fibers and sensory nerve endings. SIF cells stained intensely for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), with a few cells also being immunoreactive(More)
The morphological characteristics of P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings in the laryngeal mucosa were herein examined using immunohistochemistry with confocal laser microscopy. Ramified intraepithelial nerve endings immunoreactive to P2X3 were distributed in the epiglottis and arytenoid region. The axon terminals of P2X3-immunoreactive ramified endings were(More)
The effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on placentation have not been fully determined. The aim of this study was to clarify the structural changes of the placenta, abortion rate, and survival of neonates after BPA administration in mice. BPA (10 mg/kg/day) was administered to pregnant mice (BPA mice) subcutaneously from the first day of pregnancy (Day 0) to Day 7(More)
Many vertebrates have two anatomically distinct olfactory organs--the olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ--to detect chemicals such as general odorants and pheromones in their environment. The vomeronasal organ is not present in fish but is present in vertebrates of a higher order than amphibians. Among all extant fishes, the lungfish is(More)
The olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ of the Japanese striped snake were examined by lectin histochemistry. Of the 21 lectins used in the study, all lectins except succinylated-wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA) showed similar binding patterns in the vomeronasal receptor cells and the olfactory receptor cells with varying intensities. The binding(More)