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Effects of irreversible mixing are incorporated to the finite-amplitude theory for eddy-mean flow interaction on the quasigeostrophic beta plane through a diffusive flux of potential vorticity (PV). The theory is built on the advection-diffusion-reaction equation for PV and connects (a) finite-amplitude wave activity (negative of pseudomomentum) A, defined(More)
Among the varied adaptations for avian flight, the morphological traits allowing large-bodied albatrosses to capitalize on wind and wave energy for efficient long-distance flight are unparalleled. Consequently, the biogeographic distribution of most albatrosses is limited to the windiest oceanic regions on earth; however, exceptions exist. Species breeding(More)
Recently the evidence of the neutrinoless double β (0νββ) decay has been announced. This means that neutrinos are Majorana particles and their mass hierarchy is forced to inverted mass hierarchy (Type B) or degenerate mass (Type C) patterns in the diagonal basis of charged lepton mass matrix. We estimate the magnitude of 0νββ decay in the degenerate(More)
The PDF of N 2 O mixing ratio differences over various separation distances is studied using ER-2 airborne data. It is found that the PDF shape ranges from Gaussian, through stretched exponential and exponential, back to Gaussian as the separation distance increases from 200 m to about 200 km. With the PDF as a diagnostic tool, we identify the horizontal(More)
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