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A partial nucleotide sequence of the mRNA encoding a major part of elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1 alpha) from a mitochondria-lacking protozoan, Giardia lamblia, was reported, and the phylogenetic relationship among lower eukaryotes was inferred by the maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony methods of protein phylogeny. Both the methods consistently(More)
Chronologic and morphometric changes in the inferior olivary nucleus of the human medulla oblongata were studied in eight cases of primary pontine hemorrhage with different survival periods. To measure the olivary areas and analyze the neuronal and glial components, an optic electronic planimeter was used. A desk-top computer was also used for the(More)
Ghrelin is a novel peptide that stimulates the release of growth hormone from the pituitary and is involved in hypothalamic feeding regulation. A pre-embedding immunostaining technique was used to study the ultrastructure and synaptic relationships of ghrelin-containing neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus (ARC). Ghrelin-like immunoreactive (ghrelin-LI)(More)
The morphometric development of the human cerebellar nuclei was examined in 9 fetuses (16-40 weeks of gestation; WG), an infant (2 months old) and 2 adults (16 and 63 years old). With the morphological observation of serial sections of the brain containing the cerebellar nuclei, the authors measured sections to get several morphometric parameters: the(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) contributes to ischemic neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms regulating action of IL-1 are still poorly understood. In order to clear this central issue, mice that were gene deficient in IL-1alpha and beta (IL-1 KO) and wild-type mice were subjected to 1-h transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Expression levels of(More)
The development of the human magnocellular red nucleus (RNm) was studied in 20 fetuses at 12-39 weeks of gestation (WG). With microscopic observation on serial sections of the brain, we measured the profile area of a neuronal cell body. At 12WG, several islands of immature cells of the RNm appeared dorsal to the parvocellular red nucleus (RNp). At 16WG, the(More)
The development of the human dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve was studied on serial sections of the brain of 10 fetuses at 16-40 weeks of gestation, an infant at 2 months of age and an adult of 63 years. A morphometric analysis revealed that the nucleus is divided into three subnuclei (caudal, dorsal and ventral) and that this subdivision is maintained(More)
A clinicoanatomic study of 12 patients with tegmental-type primary pontine hemorrhage proved the presence of a gustatory disturbance among other clinical symptoms on the same side of the tongue as that of the pontine lesion, and suggested the secondary pathway of gustatory sensation from the solitary tract nucleus ascends without decussation in the(More)
The morphometric development of the pontine nuclei in the human fetus from 16 to 40 gestational weeks, in a 2-month-old infant and in a 63-year-old adult were examined employing a serial celloidin section method and computer assisted electronic planimeter. The results of our study can be summarized as follows: (1) the development of the human pontine nuclei(More)
The protective effect of a mouse hepatitis virus type-4 (MHV-4)-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cell clone and a CD4+ helper T cell clone was examined by the adoptive transfer into brains of mice lethally infected with MHV-4. Mice survived acute encephalitis if more than 5 x 10(5) cells of either type of the virus-specific T cell clones had been transferred into(More)