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K. Cheng (1986) suggested that learning the geometry of enclosing surfaces takes place in a geometric module blind to other spatial information. Failures to find blocking or overshadowing of geometry learning by features near a goal seem consistent with this view. The authors present an operant model in which learning spatial features competes with geometry(More)
In a recent article, the authors (Miller & Shettleworth, 2007) showed how the apparently exceptional features of behavior in geometry learning ("reorientation") experiments can be modeled by assuming that geometric and other features at given locations in an arena are learned competitively as in the Rescorla-Wagner model and that the probability of visiting(More)
Zebrafish has been a favourite of developmental biologists and numerous genetic tools have been developed for this species. In recent years, zebrafish has become an increasingly popular subject of neuroscientists and behavioural scientists. One of the typical characteristics of zebrafish is shoaling, individuals forming a tight group in which fish swim(More)
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly gaining popularity in translational neuroscience and behavioral research. Physiological similarity to mammals, ease of genetic manipulations, sensitivity to pharmacological and genetic factors, robust behavior, low cost, and potential for high-throughput screening contribute to the growing utility of zebrafish models in(More)
In many species, group cohesion may be the result of a compromise between opposing forces (e.g. predator avoidance and competition for food). However, little empirical data exists on the dynamics of group cohesion. We present moment-to-moment positional data on zebrafish shoals and analyze temporal changes in inter-individual distances. We demonstrate that(More)
Groups of animals-flocks, herds, shoals, and swarms-are often dynamical entities. Relative positions of group members change, and most groups divide and re-form on multiple timescales. Few studies, however, have attempted to define when an animal is or is not within a group. Most authors adopt arbitrary distance thresholds, such as the elective group size(More)
Learning has been studied extensively in the context of isolated individuals. However, many organisms are social and consequently make decisions both individually and as part of a collective. Reaching consensus necessarily means that a single option is chosen by the group, even when there are dissenting opinions. This decision-making process decouples the(More)
The zebrafish has been used in the analysis of the effects of drugs of abuse, including alcohol and nicotine. In the current study, we investigate the effects of these drugs on shoaling, group-forming behavior, in zebrafish, using a newly developed set of behavioral measures. We expose our fish acutely to 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00% (% v/v) ethyl alcohol or 4(More)
Animal groups on the move can take different configurations. For example, groups of fish can either be 'shoals' or 'schools': shoals are simply aggregations of individuals; schools are shoals exhibiting polarized, synchronized motion. Here we demonstrate that polarization distributions of groups of zebrafish (Danio rerio) are bimodal, showing two distinct(More)
The authors report a novel approach to testing episodic-like memory for single events. Pigeons were trained in separate sessions to match the identity of a sample on a touch screen, to match its location, and to report on the length of the retention interval. When these 3 tasks were mixed randomly within sessions, birds were more than 80% correct on each(More)