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In yeast, SIR2 overexpression or calorie restriction (CR) results in life-span extension. It was previously suggested that CR activates Sir2 by reducing the levels of Sir2 inhibitors, NADH, or nicotinamide. Whereas NADH reduction is associated with an increase in respiration, nicotinamide clearance is induced by the upregulation of PNC1. Here, we show that,(More)
Regulation of life span by members of the forkhead transcription factor family of proteins is one of the most highly investigated pathways in the field of aging. Nevertheless, despite the existence of forkhead family homologues in yeast, our knowledge of these proteins' role in yeast longevity is limited. Here, we show that yeast Hcm1p forkhead is the(More)
While average human life expectancy has increased dramatically in the last century, the maximum lifespan has only modestly increased. These observations prompted the notion that human lifespan might have reached its maximal natural limit of ~115 years. To evaluate this hypothesis, we conducted a systematic analysis of all-cause human mortality throughout(More)
7-Aminocephalosporanic acid tert-butyl ester reacts quantitatively at--20 degrees with iminium chlorides to give amidino derivatives. Removal of the tert-butyl protecting group with trifluoroacetic acid and treatment with 1 equiv of triethylamine yield the corresponding zwitterions. These compounds were less active than their penicillin analogs.
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