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Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) disposes of aberrant proteins in the secretory pathway. Protein substrates of ERAD are dislocated via the Sec61p translocon from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol, where they are ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome. Since the Sec61p channel is also responsible for import of nascent(More)
There is no evaluation of the evidence for the screening of oropharyngeal dysphagia in stroke. We reviewed the literature on clinical screening for oropharyngeal dysphagia in adults with stroke to determine (a) the accuracy of different screening tests used to detect dysphagia defined by abnormal oropharyngeal physiology on videofluoroscopy and (b) the(More)
Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is a DNA damage tolerance mechanism in which specialized low-fidelity DNA polymerases bypass replication-blocking lesions, and it is usually associated with mutagenesis. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae a key event in TLS is the monoubiquitination of PCNA, which enables recruitment of the specialized polymerases to the damaged(More)
Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) employs low-fidelity DNA polymerases to bypass replication-blocking lesions, and being associated with chromosomal replication was presumed to occur in the S phase of the cell cycle. Using immunostaining with anti-replication protein A antibodies, we show that in UV-irradiated mammalian cells, chromosomal single-stranded gaps(More)
NF-kappaB induces the expression of genes involved in immune response, apoptosis, inflammation, and the cell cycle. Certain NF-kappaB-responsive genes are activated rapidly after the cell is stimulated by cytokines and other extracellular signals. However, the mechanism by which these genes are activated is not entirely understood. Here we report that even(More)
We describe a one-step gene replacement method based on fusion PCR that can be used to mutagenize essential genes at their endogenous locus. Marker-fusion PCR can facilitate transfer of alleles between strains as well as PCR-based techniques, such as site-directed and error-prone PCR mutagenesis, all without cloning or strain constructions. With this(More)
We investigated symptoms suggestive of swallowing problems in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, some of whom displayed features of sicca complex. A prospective study of 95 consecutive patients with primary biliary cirrhosis was conducted at a single teaching hospital using a questionnaire administered over the telephone. Some symptoms of sicca(More)
Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is a DNA damage tolerance mechanism, in which specialized low-fidelity DNA polymerases bypass lesions that interfere with replication. This process is inherently mutagenic due to the miscoding nature of DNA lesions, but it prevents double strand breaks, genome instability, and cancer. We describe here a quantitative method(More)