Noah Wardrip-Fruin

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One compelling aspect of computer RPGs is the promise of player agency: the ability to make significant and desired choices in a large, complex, and story-rich environment. Giving players meaningful choice has traditionally required the creation of tremendous amounts of hand-authored story content. This authoring paradigm tends to introduce both structural(More)
<i>Prom Week</i> places players in a typical high-school, abuzz with excitement over the upcoming prom. Players indirectly sculpt the social landscape by having these hapless highschoolers engage in social exchanges with each other. The results of these social exchanges are many and varied---ranging from mild fluctuations in respect to characters professing(More)
Social games—common patterns of character interactions that modify the social environment of the story world—provide a useful abstraction when authoring a story composed of interactive characters, making it possible to create games with deep possibility spaces that are about social interaction (which would be intractable if hand-authoring all the options).(More)
Comme il Faut is an artificial intelligence system and authoring strategy for creating game-based interactive stories about relationships and social interactions between characters. Using the abstraction of the social game, Comme il Faut creates experiences where specific dramatic interactions between characters arise from play. This paper describes the(More)
Meaningful choice has often been identified as a key component in a player's engagement with an interactive narrative, but branching stories require tremendous amounts of hand-authored content, in amounts that increase exponentially rather than linearly as more choice points are added. Previous approaches to reducing au-thorial burden for computer RPGs have(More)
Players begin games at different skill levels and develop their skill at different rates so that even the best-designed games are uninterestingly easy for some players and frustratingly difficult for others. A proposed answer to this challenge is Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment (DDA), a general category of approaches that alter games during play, in response(More)
Players begin games at different skill levels and develop their skill at different rates—so that even the best-designed games are uninterestingly easy for some players and frustratingly difficult for others. A proposed answer to this challenge is Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment (DDA), a general category of approaches that alter games during play, in response(More)
Computer role-playing games (CRPGs) are known for their strong narrative structure. Over time, quests have become one of the main mechanics for leading a player through the story. Quests are given to the player in the form of a set of tasks to complete with few, if any, options. The options given to the player instead often revolve around combat-oriented(More)
Authoring interactive stories where the player is afforded a wide range of social interactions results in a very large space of possible social and story situations. The amount of effort required to individually author for each of these circumstances can quickly become intractable. The social AI system Comme il Faut (CiF) aims to reduce the burden on the(More)