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AIM To examine the relations between noise exposure and other risk factors with hearing function as measured by audiometric thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. METHODS A total of 456 subjects were studied (393 apprentices in construction trades and 63 graduate students). Hearing and peripheral auditory function were quantified using(More)
OBJECTIVE Manganese (Mn), an established neurotoxicant, is a common component of welding fume. The neurological phenotype associated with welding exposures has not been well described. Prior epidemiologic evidence linking occupational welding to parkinsonism is mixed, and remains controversial. METHODS This was a cross-sectional and nested case-control(More)
Manganese (Mn) is a common neurotoxicant associated with a clinical syndrome that includes signs and symptoms referable to the basal ganglia. Despite many advances in understanding the pathophysiology of Mn neurotoxicity in humans, with molecular and structural imaging techniques, only a few case reports describe the associated pathological findings, and(More)
Characteristics of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements were investigated by comparing responses from two different emission measurement systems in 40 volunteers (78 ears) and making test-retest measurements of each system in 20 ears. For transformation of results between systems, it was shown that the minimum data set consisted of(More)
The complex, dynamic, and continually changing nature of construction work has been recognized as an important contributor to the high rates of injuries and fatalities in the industry. Cranes are a central component of many construction operations and are associated with a large fraction of construction deaths; in fact, estimates suggest that cranes are(More)
In constructing quantitative measures of exposure for the study of chronic occupational disease, researchers have generally used a cumulative exposure calculated as the sum of the products of period-specific exposure concentrations and the time each individual spent in each exposure category. There has been some disagreement and lack of clarity about the(More)
Although the exposure-response relationships for noise-induced hearing loss are relatively well established, there is not complete agreement on which metrics of noise exposure best represent risk of hearing damage. In particular, while L(eq), based on a 3 dB exchange rate (ER) is used by most agencies, US OSHA's standard is based on the L(avg), which uses a(More)
Using a large data set of noise exposure measurements on construction workers, task-based (TB) and full-shift (FS) exposure levels were compared and analyzed for the sources and magnitudes of the error associated with this methodology. Data-logging dosimeters recorded A-weighted sound pressure levels in decibels using Occupational Safety and Health(More)
This study assessed the effectiveness of commercially available local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems for controlling respirable dust and crystalline silica exposures during concrete cutting and grinding activities. Work activities were performed by union-sponsored apprentices and included tuck-point grinding, surface grinding, paver block and brick(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also for the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that failures of IARC Working Groups to recognize study weaknesses and biases of(More)