Noah L. Schroeder

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Advances in information technologies have resulted in the use of pedagogical agents to facilitate learning. Although several studies have been conducted to examine the effects of pedagogical agents on learning, little is known about gender stereotypes of agents and how those stereotypes influence student learning and attitudes. This study investigates if(More)
The use of external representations (ERs) to introduce concepts in undergraduate biology has become increasingly common. Two of the most prevalent are static images and dynamic animations. While previous studies comparing static images and dynamic animations have resulted in somewhat conflicting findings in regards to learning outcomes, the benefits of each(More)
According to cognitive load theorists, the incorporation of extraneous features, such as pedagogical agents, into the learning environment can introduce extraneous cognitive load and thus interfere with learning outcome scores. In this study, the influence of a pedagogical agent’s presence in an instructional video was compared to a video that did not(More)
The current paper investigates an essential design component of virtual humans, the voice they communicate with, by examining the impact of varied voice types. A standard voice effect has held that human voices should be paired with virtual humans. The current study revisits this effect. In a randomized trial, virtual humans used one of three voice types(More)
Many undergraduate biology courses have begun to implement instructional strategies aimed at increasing student interaction with course material outside of the classroom. Two examples of such practices are introducing students to concepts as preparation prior to instruction, and as conceptual reinforcement after the instructional period. Using a three-group(More)
Recent reports calling for change in undergraduate biology education have resulted in the redesign of many introductory biology courses. Reports on one common change to course structure, the active-learning environment, have placed an emphasis on student preparation, noting that the positive outcomes of active learning in the classroom depend greatly on how(More)
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