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In this article we discuss the strategies that people may use to cope with situations that are risky in that they present the possibility for failure and potential threats to self-esteem. Previous research has indicated that anxiety (Sarason, 1980) and explicitly set low expectations (Sherman, Skov, Hervitz, & Stock, 1981) may lead to performance deficits(More)
The authors examined in 618 older Americans the extent to which individual levels of life satisfaction were connected to participation in the shared tasks of late adulthood (e.g., community service and social life participation). Participation in these shared tasks was an important predictor of life satisfaction, controlling for health, self-reported(More)
This research examined 2 age-typical goals that adolescents may pursue in social dating (intimacy goals related to open communication and mutual dependence and identity goals related to self-reliance and self-exploration) and the implications of these different goal sets for responsiveness to educational and daily life situations. Education about safer(More)
College students responded to a series of questionnaires while they were in the process of selecting housing from a choice of seven available options for the coming fall. Questionnaires concerned their self-concepts, their housing prototypes, their preferences in housing, and their goals in housing selection. Overall analyses of the self-to-prototype(More)
Using experience-sampling data the authors examined distinct benefits and uses of social support. As expected, emotional support buffered negative psychological states, and informational support appeared to facilitate mastery-related states, among individuals who had previously reported low well-being. An examination of social pursuits revealed that these(More)
Eighteen stimuli were created by orthogonally varying the area (A), perimeter (P), and exposure duration of checkerboard patterns. Subjects judged either the area and duration of the presented shapes (area-time group) or the perimeter and duration (perimeter-time group) of the same figures. Perceived duration, area, and perimeter varied with changes in the(More)
We propose that the capacity for a symbolic self (a flexible and multifaceted cognitive representation of an organism's own attributes) in humans is a product of evolution. In pursuing this argument, we note that some primates possess rudimentary elements Of a self (an objectified self) and that the symbolic self (a) is a trait that is widely shared among(More)
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