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Proper ion channel function often requires specific combinations of pore-forming alpha and regulatory beta subunits, but little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the surface expression of different channel combinations. Our studies of ATP-sensitive K+ channel (K(ATP)) trafficking reveal an essential quality control function for a trafficking motif(More)
1. The interaction of L-cysteine with three excitatory amino acid transporter subtypes cloned from human brain (EAAT1-3) was examined by measuring transporter-mediated electrical currents and radiolabelled amino acid flux in voltage-clamped Xenopus oocytes expressing the transporters. 2. L-Cysteine was transported by the neuronal subtype EAAT3 (EAAC1) with(More)
To investigate the degradation mechanism of misfolded membrane proteins from the cell surface, we used mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators (CFTRs) exhibiting conformational defects in post-Golgi compartments. Here, we show that the folding state of CFTR determines the post-endocytic trafficking of the channel. Although native CFTR(More)
Thyroid hormones require transport across cell membranes to carry out their biological functions. The importance of transport for thyroid hormone signaling was highlighted by the discovery that inactivating mutations in the human monocarboxylate transporter-8 (MCT8) (SLC16A2) cause severe psychomotor retardation due to thyroid hormone deficiency in the(More)
To improve the accuracy of predicting membrane protein sorting signals, we developed a general methodology for defining trafficking signal consensus sequences in the environment of the living cell. Our approach uses retroviral gene transfer to create combinatorial expression libraries of trafficking signal variants in mammalian cells, flow cytometry to sort(More)
Little is known about the identity of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export signals and how they are used to regulate the number of proteins on the cell surface. Here, we describe two ER export signals that profoundly altered the steady-state distribution of potassium channels and were required for channel localization to the plasma membrane. When transferred(More)
G protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir3, GIRK) provide an important mechanism for neurotransmitter regulation of membrane excitability. GIRK channels are tetramers containing various combinations of Kir3 subunits (Kir3.1--Kir3.4). We find that different combinations of Kir3 subunits exhibit a surprisingly complex spectrum of(More)
Bile acids are transported across the ileal enterocyte brush border membrane by the well characterized apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (Asbt) Slc10a2; however, the carrier(s) responsible for transporting bile acids across the ileocyte basolateral membrane into the portal circulation have not been fully identified. Transcriptional profiling of(More)
Glutamate transporters maintain low synaptic concentrations of neurotransmitter by coupling uptake to flux of other ions. After cotransport of glutamic acid with Na+, the cycle is completed by countertransport of K+. We have identified an amino acid residue (glutamate 404) influencing ion coupling in a domain of the transporter implicated previously in(More)