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Accumulated genetic evidence suggests that attenuation of the ratio between cerebral amyloid-β Aβ40 and Aβ42 isoforms is central to familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) pathogenesis. However, FAD mutations account for only 1-2% of Alzheimer's disease cases, leaving the experience-dependent mechanisms regulating Aβ40/42 an enigma. Here we explored regulation(More)
Short-term synaptic plasticity, the dynamic alteration of synaptic strength during high-frequency activity, is a fundamental characteristic of all synapses. At the calyx of Held, repetitive activity eventually results in short-term synaptic depression, which is in part due to the gradual exhaustion of releasable synaptic vesicles. This is counterbalanced by(More)
Scorpion beta and alpha-toxins modify the activation and inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. Although the two types of toxin bind at two distinct receptor sites on the same sodium channel, they exhibit synergic effects when coinjected into insects. To clarify the basis of this synergism we examined the mutual effects of alpha and beta toxin(More)
Munc13 proteins are essential regulators of exocytosis. In hippocampal glutamatergic neurons, the genetic deletion of Munc13s results in the complete loss of primed synaptic vesicles (SVs) in direct contact with the presynaptic active zone membrane, and in a total block of neurotransmitter release. Similarly drastic consequences of Munc13 loss are(More)
Ca(2+) signalling in neurons through calmodulin (CaM) has a prominent function in regulating synaptic vesicle trafficking, transport, and fusion. Importantly, Ca(2+)-CaM binds a conserved region in the priming proteins Munc13-1 and ubMunc13-2 and thus regulates synaptic neurotransmitter release in neurons in response to residual Ca(2+) signals. We solved(More)
Increased levels of the second messenger lipid diacylglycerol (DAG) induce downstream signaling events including the translocation of C1-domain-containing proteins toward the plasma membrane. Here, we introduce three light-sensitive DAGs, termed PhoDAGs, which feature a photoswitchable acyl chain. The PhoDAGs are inactive in the dark and promote the(More)
Tomosyn is a cytoplasmic protein that was shown to bind to Syntaxin1 and SNAP-25 through an R-SNARE domain, forming a complex that is almost identical in structure to the neuronal SNARE complex. Tomosyn inhibits exocytosis in various cell types and these effects were attributed to direct competition between tomosyn's SNARE domain and Synaptobrevin/VAMP. In(More)
Munc13s are presynaptic proteins that mediate synaptic vesicle priming and thereby control the size of the readily releasable pool of vesicles. During high synaptic activity, Munc13-1 and its closely related homolog, ubMunc13-2, bind Ca(2+)/calmodulin, resulting in enhanced priming activity and in changes of short-term synaptic plasticity characteristics.(More)
The synaptic vesicle cycle encompasses the pre-synaptic events that drive neurotransmission. Influx of calcium leads to the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane and the release of neurotransmitter, closely followed by endocytosis. Vacated release sites are repopulated with vesicles which are then primed for release. When activity is intense,(More)
Neurotransmitter is released at synapses by fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane. To sustain synaptic transmission, compensatory retrieval of membranes and vesicular proteins is essential. We combined capacitance measurements and pH-imaging via pH-sensitive vesicular protein marker (anti-synaptotagmin2-cypHer5E), and compared the retrieval(More)