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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between dietary lutein plus zeaxanthin and intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN Women aged 50 to 79 years in Iowa, Wisconsin, and Oregon with intake of lutein plus zeaxanthin above the 78th (high) and below the 28th (low) percentiles at baseline in the Women's Health Initiative Observational(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity-related dysregulation of the insulin-glucose axis is hypothesized in carcinogenesis. We studied impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and other markers of insulin-glucose metabolism in the Framingham Heart Study-Offspring Cohort, which uniquely tracks these markers and cancer >37 years. METHODS Participants were recruited between 1971 and 1975(More)
The insulin-signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in cancer biology; however, evidence of genetic alterations in human studies is limited. This case–control study nested within the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) examined the association between inherited genetic variation in the insulin receptor (INSR) gene and obesity-related cancer risk. The study sample(More)
While diabetes has been linked to several cancers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, findings have been mixed for sites other than colorectal and liver cancer. We used the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) data and conducted a comprehensive assessment of associations between diabetes and GI malignancy (esophagus, stomach, liver, biliary, pancreas, colon, and(More)
This study investigated a potential independent association between hypovitaminosis D and suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a nationally representative sample of the US adolescents. Data from 1630 subjects 12-19 years of age were examined using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2004. The vitamin D status of(More)
Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations between nuclear cataract (determined from slitlamp photographs between May 2001 and January 2004) and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in patients between 1994 and 1998 and macula between 2001 and 2004. DESIGN A total of 1802 women aged 50 to 79 years in Iowa, Wisconsin, and Oregon with intakes of lutein and(More)
BACKGROUND Mobile phone health apps may now seem to be ubiquitous, yet much remains unknown with regard to their usage. Information is limited with regard to important metrics, including the percentage of the population that uses health apps, reasons for adoption/nonadoption, and reasons for noncontinuance of use. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was(More)
Studies suggest inverse associations between obesity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). However, there is little evidence whether factors related to obesity, including lifestyle (diet and physical activity) and physiologic factors (insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome), influence PSA. We used dietary, physical activity, and serum PSA, insulin,(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the associations between levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) in serum and prevalent age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS AND DESIGN Cross-sectional associations of serum vitamin D and early and advanced AMD, assessed from nonmydriatic fundus photographs, were evaluated in the third National Health and Nutrition(More)