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The rate of exceptionally slow reaction times (RTs), described by the long tail of the RT distribution, was found to be amplified in a variety of special populations with cognitive deficits (e.g., early-stage Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence, elderly). Previous individual differences studies found high(More)
Few studies have addressed action control training. In the current study, participants were trained over 19 days in an adaptive training task that demanded constant switching, maintenance and updating of novel action rules. Participants completed an executive functions battery before and after training that estimated processing speed, working memory(More)
In this study, we tested the proposal that the Stroop task involves two conflicts--task conflict and informational conflict. Task conflict was defined as the latency difference between color words and non-letter neutrals, and manipulated by varying the proportion of color words versus non-letter neutrals. Informational conflict was defined as the latency(More)
Assessed long-term effects of assisted reproduction technologies of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and related techniques of embryo transfer (ET) on children's adjustment. 51 school-age Israeli children conceived by IVF/ET were compared with 51 control-matched children conceived spontaneously. The assessment included a comprehensive medical evaluation, a(More)
Task switching involves switch cost (poorer performance switch trials than in task-repetition trials) and mixing cost (poorer performance in task-repetition trials than in trials from blocks without task switching). These are mainly studied with the alternating runs task-switching (ARTS) paradigm (in which the task changes every constant number of trials)(More)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been described as a disorder where frequent lapses of attention impair the ability of an individual to focus/attend in a sustained manner, thereby generating abnormally large intra-individual behavioral variability across trials. Indeed, increased reaction time (RT) variability is a fundamental behavioral(More)
The ability to efficiently follow novel task instructions (Rapid Instructed Task Learning, RITL) appears late in evolution, is required for successful collaborative teamwork, and appears to involve maintaining instructions in working-memory (WM). RITL is indexed by the efficiency in which the instructions are performed (RITL success) and by whether the(More)
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