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To understand the evolutionary events and possible selection mechanisms involved in the emergence of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, we analyzed diverse strains of V. cholerae isolated from environmental waters in Bangladesh by direct enrichment in the intestines of adult rabbits and by conventional laboratory culture. Strains isolated by conventional culture(More)
An epidemiological study was carried out to find out the aetiological agent for diarrhoeal disorders in the cyclone and flood affected areas of Orissa, India. Rectal swabs collected from 107 hospitalized diarrhoea patients were bacteriologically analysed to isolate and identify the various enteropathogens. Detection of toxic genes among E. coli and V.(More)
Laribacter hongkongensis is a recently discovered bacterium associated with gastroenteritis. In this study, a total of 199 isolates of this species obtained from aquatic products (n=462) in Guangzhou City, China, were examined for their susceptibility to 19 antimicrobial agents and the presence of antimicrobial resistance integrons. The genetic relatedness(More)
Laribacter hongkongensis is a novel emerging pathogen associated with human gastroenteritis. We aimed to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and genotypic relationship of 199 L. hongkongensis isolates from 690 intestinal samples of fish and frogs. These samples were collected from retail markets in the city of Guangzhou in southern China(More)
Most bacterial cells are stressed, and as a result, some become tolerant to antibiotics by entering a dormant state known as persistence. The key intracellular metabolite that has been linked to this persister state is guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), the alarmone that was first linked to nutrient stress. In Escherichia coli, ppGpp redirects protein(More)
Factors that enhance the transmission of pathogens are poorly understood. We show that Vibrio cholerae shed in human 'rice-water' stools have a 10-fold lower oral infectious dose in an animal model than in vitro grown V. cholerae, which may aid in transmission during outbreaks. Furthermore, we identify a bacterial factor contributing to this enhanced(More)
Persister cells are a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation of bacteria that contribute to chronic and recalcitrant clinical infections such as cystic fibrosis and tuberculosis. Persisters are metabolically dormant, so they are highly tolerant to all traditional antibiotics which are mainly effective against actively growing cells. Here, we show that the(More)
The use of natural compounds as inhibitory agents for virulence factor production is a new approach to overcome increased antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we examined whether red chilli (Capsicum annuum) contains any such compound(s) that can repress the cholera toxin (CT) production in Vibrio cholerae. We found that the(More)
Cholera outbreaks in subSaharan African countries are caused by strains of the El Tor biotype of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1. The El Tor biotype is the causative agent of the current seventh cholera pandemic, whereas the classical biotype, which was associated with the sixth pandemic, is now extinct. Besides other genetic differences the CTX prophages(More)
The major virulence factors of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae are cholera toxin (CT), which is encoded by a lysogenic bacteriophage (CTXPhi), and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), an essential colonization factor which is also the receptor for CTXPhi. The genes for the biosynthesis of TCP are part of a larger genetic element known as the TCP pathogenicity island.(More)