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To understand the evolutionary events and possible selection mechanisms involved in the emergence of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, we analyzed diverse strains of V. cholerae isolated from environmental waters in Bangladesh by direct enrichment in the intestines of adult rabbits and by conventional laboratory culture. Strains isolated by conventional culture(More)
Cholera outbreaks in subSaharan African countries are caused by strains of the El Tor biotype of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1. The El Tor biotype is the causative agent of the current seventh cholera pandemic, whereas the classical biotype, which was associated with the sixth pandemic, is now extinct. Besides other genetic differences the CTX prophages(More)
An epidemiological study was carried out to find out the aetiological agent for diarrhoeal disorders in the cyclone and flood affected areas of Orissa, India. Rectal swabs collected from 107 hospitalized diarrhoea patients were bacteriologically analysed to isolate and identify the various enteropathogens. Detection of toxic genes among E. coli and V.(More)
Factors that enhance the transmission of pathogens are poorly understood. We show that Vibrio cholerae shed in human 'rice-water' stools have a 10-fold lower oral infectious dose in an animal model than in vitro grown V. cholerae, which may aid in transmission during outbreaks. Furthermore, we identify a bacterial factor contributing to this enhanced(More)
Laribacter hongkongensis is a recently discovered bacterium associated with gastroenteritis. In this study, a total of 199 isolates of this species obtained from aquatic products (n=462) in Guangzhou City, China, were examined for their susceptibility to 19 antimicrobial agents and the presence of antimicrobial resistance integrons. The genetic relatedness(More)
Laribacter hongkongensis is a novel emerging pathogen associated with human gastroenteritis. We aimed to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and genotypic relationship of 199 L. hongkongensis isolates from 690 intestinal samples of fish and frogs. These samples were collected from retail markets in the city of Guangzhou in southern China(More)
During March and April 2002, a resurgence of Vibrio cholerae O139 occurred in Dhaka and adjoining areas of Bangladesh with an estimated 30,000 cases of cholera. Patients infected with O139 strains were much older than those infected with O1 strains (p<0.001). The reemerged O139 strains belong to a single ribotype corresponding to one of two ribotypes that(More)
Most bacterial cells are stressed, and as a result, some become tolerant to antibiotics by entering a dormant state known as persistence. The key intracellular metabolite that has been linked to this persister state is guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), the alarmone that was first linked to nutrient stress. In Escherichia coli, ppGpp redirects protein(More)
The major virulence factors of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae are cholera toxin (CT), which is encoded by a lysogenic bacteriophage (CTXPhi), and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), an essential colonization factor which is also the receptor for CTXPhi. The genes for the biosynthesis of TCP are part of a larger genetic element known as the TCP pathogenicity island.(More)
The toxigenic Inaba serotype of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor reappeared in India in 1998 and 1999, almost 10 years after its last dominance in Calcutta in 1989. Extensive molecular characterization by ribotyping, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that recent Inaba strains are remarkably different(More)