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Studies in rodents have shown that psychostimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamine cause endorphin release in the brain reward system. There is also evidence for the involvement of the opioid system in human psychostimulant dependence. The acute effects of an i.v. psychostimulant drug on the brain opioid system, however, have not yet been investigated(More)
Amphetamine abuse and dependence is a global health concern with a collateral increase in medical and social problems. Although some of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying amphetamine dependence and its devastating effects in humans are known, the development of rational and evidence-based treatment is lagging. There is evidence from preclinical(More)
OBJECTIVE Currently there is no approved pharmacotherapy for amphetamine dependence. Recent human laboratory studies have demonstrated that naltrexone modulates some of the reinforcing effects of amphetamine. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of naltrexone in comparison with placebo in reducing relapse to amphetamine use in(More)
The development of amphetamine dependence largely depends on the effects of amphetamine in the brain reward systems. Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, activates the reward systems and is required for reward induced by alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and amphetamine in mice. Human genetic studies have shown that polymorphisms in the pre-proghrelin (GHRL) as well as(More)
While dopaminergic mechanisms in amphetamine-taking behavior have been extensively studied, the contribution of the endogenous opioid system is less clear. We assessed the effects of an opioid antagonist, naltrexone (50 mg), on the subjective response to an oral dose of dexamphetamine (30 mg) in 12 healthy volunteers in a double-blind, placebo-controlled(More)
The efficacy of medications for alcohol dependence remains modest, and there are no strong clinical predictors of treatment response. Approved medications include acamprosate (an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) modulator), disulfiram (an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor) and naltrexone (an opioid antagonist) while nalmefene (an opioid antagonist)(More)
The efficacy of stimulant treatment in patients with substance use disorders and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been tested for cocaine and alcohol dependence but so far no studies have been conducted in amphetamine dependent individuals. The present trial was a pilot study aiming to test the feasibility of treating amphetamine(More)
One of the main treatment challenges in alcohol use disorder (AUD) is the high rate of craving in combination with decreased cognitive functioning including impaired decision making and impulse control that often lead to relapse. Recent studies show that guanfacine, an α-2-adrenoceptor agonist and FDA-approved ADHD medication, attenuates stress-induced(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term amphetamine and methamphetamine dependence has been linked to cerebral blood perfusion, metabolic, and white matter abnormalities. Several studies have linked methamphetamine abuse to cortical grey matter reduction, though with divergent findings. Few publications investigate unmethylated amphetamine's potential effects on cortical grey(More)
Recent studies indicate that emotional processes, mediated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), are of great importance for moral judgment. Neurological patients with VMPC dysfunction have been shown to generate increased utilitarian moral judgments, i.e. are more likely to endorse emotionally aversive actions in order to maximize aggregate(More)