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We characterized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins (Env) isolated from two HIV-1-infected CCR5delta32 homozygotes. Envs from both subjects used CCR5 and CXCR4 for entry into transfected cells. Most R5X4 Envs were lymphocyte-tropic and used CXCR4 exclusively for entry into peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), but a(More)
Most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains isolated from the brain use CCR5 for entry into macrophages and microglia. Strains that use both CCR5 and CXCR4 for entry (R5X4 strains) have been identified in the brains of some individuals, but mechanisms underlying the persistence of R5X4 viruses compartmentalized between the brain and other(More)
BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21 to approximately 25-nucleotides (nt) long and interact with mRNAs to trigger either translational repression or RNA cleavage through RNA interference (RNAi), depending on the degree of complementarity with the target mRNAs. Our recent study has shown that HIV-1 nef dsRNA from AIDS patients who are long-term(More)
In this study we date the introduction of HIV-2 into the human population and estimate the epidemic history of HIV-2 subtype A in Guinea-Bissau, the putative geographic origin of HIV-2. The evolutionary history of the simian immunodeficiency virussooty mangabey/HIV-2 lineage was reconstructed by using available database sequences with known sampling dates,(More)
The HIV protease-reverse transcriptase (PR-RT) (1047 bp), gp120-env (891 bp) and gp41-env (547 bp) regions from the plasma of 115 HIV-1-infected patients in Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia were sequenced. Detailed phylogenetic and bootscanning analyses were performed to determine the mosaic structure of the HIV-1 strains and their recombination breakpoint(s).(More)
The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic of 2003 was responsible for 774 deaths and caused significant economic damage worldwide. Since July 2003, a number of SARS cases have occurred in China, raising the possibility of future epidemics. We describe here a rapid, sensitive, and highly efficient assay for the detection of SARS coronavirus(More)
Absence of HIV infection of the choroid plexus (CPx) and macrophages in choroidal stroma was observed in two HIV-infected individuals who died 7 weeks and 12 months following the onset of HIV encephalitis. In contrast, the profound macrophage-related pathology associated with HIV infection presented in other neural tissue from 48 brain regions (seven CPx)(More)
In 2009 a new swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 (A/H1N1 09) emerged, causing the century's first pandemic. Most isolates of the new A/H1N1 09 virus are susceptible to neuraminidase inhibitors, but the H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase gene region associated with high-level oseltamivir resistance has been detected. Using rolling circle amplification(More)
In the event of an influenza pandemic, the use of oseltamivir (OTV) will undoubtedly increase and therefore it is more likely that OTV-resistant influenza strains will also arise. OTV-resistance genotyping using sequence-based testing on viruses isolated in cell culture is time consuming and less likely to detect the low-level presence of drug-resistant(More)
BACKGROUND The hemagglutinin HA1 D222G substitution may be associated with adverse outcomes in pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infections by enhancing the binding capacity of α2-3 sialyl receptors to pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 viruses. OBJECTIVES To investigate the emergence of the D222G mutation and other polymorphisms at this position during the(More)