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We demonstrate for the first time that the genome-wide profiling of HIV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HIV-patients free of neurologic disease show overrepresentation of neurodegenerative pathways (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, ALS, Huntington’s and Prion Disease, etc.) in genome-wide microarray analysis, which suggests that this(More)
BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21 to approximately 25-nucleotides (nt) long and interact with mRNAs to trigger either translational repression or RNA cleavage through RNA interference (RNAi), depending on the degree of complementarity with the target mRNAs. Our recent study has shown that HIV-1 nef dsRNA from AIDS patients who are long-term(More)
HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is the most common dementia type in young adults less than 40 years of age. Although the neurotoxins, oxidative/metabolic stress and impaired activity of neurotrophic factors are believed to be underlying reasons for the development of HAD, the genomic basis, which ultimately defines the virus-host interaction and leads to(More)
AIDS dementia complex (ADC) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients continues to be a problem in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A better understanding of the drug resistance mutation patterns that emerge in the central nervous system (CNS) during HAART is of paramount importance as these differences in drug(More)
BACKGROUND Elite non-progressors (plasma viral load < 50 copies/ml while antiretroviral naive) constitute a tiny fraction of HIV-infected individuals. After 12 years follow-up of a cohort of 13 long-term non-progressors (LTNP) identified from 135 individuals with transfusion-acquired HIV infection, 5 remained LTNP after 23 to 26 years infection, but only 3(More)
BACKGROUND CCR5-restricted (R5) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants cause CD4+ T-cell loss in the majority of individuals who progress to AIDS, but mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of R5 strains are poorly understood. To better understand envelope glycoprotein (Env) determinants contributing to pathogenicity of R5 viruses, we(More)
BACKGROUND HIV preferentially infects CD4+ T cells, and the functional impairment and numerical decline of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells characterize HIV disease. The numerical decline of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells affects the optimal ratio between the two cell types necessary for immune regulation. Therefore, this work aimed to define the genomic basis of HIV(More)
We previously reported an epidemiologically linked HIV-1 infected patient cohort in which a long-term non-progressor (LTNP) infected two recipients who then exhibited normal disease progression. Expression of patient-derived vpr sequences from each of the three cohort members in mammalian cells tagged with GFP revealed a significant reduction in Vpr nuclear(More)
HIV-1 subtype C (C-HIV) is responsible for most HIV-1 cases worldwide. Although the pathogenesis of C-HIV is thought to predominantly involve CCR5-restricted (R5) strains, we do not have a firm understanding of how frequently CXCR4-using (X4 and R5X4) variants emerge in subjects with progressive C-HIV infection. Nor do we completely understand the molecular(More)
Changes to the glycosylation profile on HIV gp120 can influence viral pathogenesis and alter AIDS disease progression. The characterization of glycosylation differences at the sequence level is inadequate as the placement of carbohydrates is structurally complex. However, no structural framework is available to date for the study of HIV disease progression.(More)