Nisreen A Alwan

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Exposure of children to second-hand smoke (SHS) leads to increased risk of health and social problems and uptake of smoking in the future. We aimed to assess the prevalence of children's exposure to SHS in their homes, in a deprived area in the North of England and identify what people thought would help them achieve a smoke-free home (SFH). We performed a(More)
BACKGROUND Gestational diabetes (GDM) affects 3% to 6% of all pregnancies. Women are often intensively managed with increased obstetric monitoring, dietary regulation, and insulin. However, there has been no sound evidence base to support intensive treatment. The key issue for clinicians and consumers is whether treatment of GDM improves perinatal outcome.(More)
Caffeine is a commonly consumed drug during pregnancy with the potential to affect the developing fetus. Findings from previous studies have shown inconsistent results. We recruited a cohort of 2,643 pregnant women, aged 18–45 years, attending two UK maternity units between 8 and 12 weeks gestation from September 2003 to June 2006. We used a validated tool(More)
BACKGROUND In high income countries, over the last three decades, the length of hospital stays for people with serious mental illness has reduced drastically. Some argue that this reduction has led to revolving door admissions and worsening mental health outcomes despite apparent cost savings, whilst others suggest longer stays may be more harmful by(More)
Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a(More)
Fe deficiency anaemia during early pregnancy has been linked with low birth weight and preterm birth. However, this evidence comes mostly from studies measuring Hb levels rather than specific measures of Fe deficiency. The present study aimed to examine the association between maternal Fe status during the first trimester of pregnancy, as assessed by serum(More)
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes, particularly, if present during early gestation. Iron supplements are widely recommended during pregnancy, but evidence of their benefit in relation to infant outcomes is not established. This study was performed in the UK, where iron supplements are not routinely(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence is conflicting regarding the relationship between low maternal alcohol consumption and birth outcomes. This paper aimed to investigate the association between alcohol intake before and during pregnancy with birth weight and gestational age and to examine the effect of timing of exposure. METHODS A prospective cohort in Leeds, UK, of(More)
In this study Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) was isolated from three traditionally consumed Lebanese dairy-based food products. One hundred and sixty four samples (45 samples of Baladi cheese, 36 samples of Shankleesh and 83 of Kishk) were collected from the Bekaa Valley in the Northeast region of Lebanon. Suspected Listeria colonies were(More)
The prevalence of obesity has increased simultaneously with the increase in the consumption of large food portion sizes (FPS). Studies investigating this association among adolescents are limited; fewer have addressed energy-dense foods as a potential risk factor. In the present study, the association between the portion size of the most energy-dense foods(More)