The development of the field of cognitive neuroscience has inspired a revival of interest in the brain mechanisms involved in the processing of rewards, punishments, and abstract performance feedback. One fruitful line of research in this area was initiated by the report of an electrophysiological brain potential in humans that was differentially sensitive… (More)
This study investigated the nature and dynamics of the top-down control mechanisms that afford attentional selection using event-related potentials (ERPs) and dipole-source modeling. Subjects performed a task in which they were cued to direct attention to color, location, a conjunction of color and location or no specific feature on a trial-by-trial basis.… (More)
Effects of predictability of threat on potentiation of the startle reflex were investigated by presenting participants with predictable and unpredictable electric shocks. Shocks were presented either paired with a visual cue (paired condition) or unrelated to the presentation of the visual cues (unpaired condition). In contrast to previous slower-paced… (More)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with hyperactivity of brain structures involved in performance monitoring. It has been proposed that this pathophysiology results in the generation of inappropriate or excessive internal error signals, giving rise to the characteristic symptoms of OCD. We measured an electrophysiological correlate of… (More)
The present study used event-related potentials and dipole source modeling to investigate dimension specificity in attentional control. Subjects performed cued attention tasks in which the task-relevant information (a) was always the same, (b) varied between features within the same dimension, or (c) varied between features of two different dimensions.… (More)
Attentional bias to threatening visual stimuli (words or pictures) is commonly present in anxious individuals, but not in non-anxious people. There is evidence to show that attentional bias to threat can be induced in all individuals when threat is imposed by threat not of symbolic nature, but by cues that predict aversive stimulation (loud noise or… (More)
BACKGROUND Fear-potentiated startle has been suggested as a translational model for evaluating efficacy of anxiolytic compounds in humans. Several known anxiolytic compounds have been tested as well as several putative anxiolytics. Because results of these studies have been equivocal, the aim of the present study was to examine another pharmacological… (More)
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The graph from Figure 1 was also used for Figure 2. The correct image for Figure 2 is shown below.