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The alpha7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7nAChR) is an essential component in the vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway that regulates the levels of TNF, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and other cytokines during inflammation. Choline is an essential nutrient, a cell membrane constituent, a precursor in the(More)
The folate pathway plays a crucial role in the regeneration and repair of the adult CNS after injury. Here, we have shown in rodents that such repair occurs at least in part through DNA methylation. In animals with combined spinal cord and sciatic nerve injury, folate-mediated CNS axon regeneration was found to depend on injury-related induction of the(More)
High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) is a cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory diseases. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a vagus nerve-dependent mechanism, inhibits HMGB1 release in experimental disease models. Here, we examine the relationship between vagus nerve activity and HMGB1 in patients(More)
Renal cell carcinoma is a common malignancy with increasing incidence due to the incidental detection of non-symptomatic small renal masses on imaging. Management of these small tumors has evolved toward minimally invasive nephron-sparing techniques which include partial nephrectomy and image-guided ablation. Cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are the(More)
The emergence of silymarin (SMN) as a natural remedy for liver diseases, coupled with its entry into NIH clinical trial, signifies its hepatoprotective potential. SMN is noted for its ability to interfere with apoptotic signaling while acting as an antioxidant. This in vivo study was designed to explore the hepatotoxic potential of Doxorubicin (Dox), the(More)
The cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway modulates inflammatory cytokine production through a mechanism dependent on the vagus nerve and the alpha7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. GTS-21 [3-(2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene) anabaseine], a selective alpha7 agonist, inhibits inflammatory cytokine production in murine and human macrophages and in(More)
We examined the role of innate cells in acquired resistance to the natural murine parasitic nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Macrophages obtained from lungs as late as 45 d after N. brasiliensis inoculation were able to transfer accelerated parasite clearance to naive recipients. Primed macrophages adhered to larvae in vitro and triggered increased(More)
From a disease-prevention perspective, recent progress in phytochemical and nutraceutical research clearly suggests (benefits outweigh the risk pattern). Although powerful antioxidant properties have been the most acclaimed mechanism of action for these entities, the individual antioxidants studied in clinical trials do not appear to have consistent(More)
INTRODUCTION Bariatric surgery has emerged as an effective method of combating the morbid obesity epidemic. However, the massive weight loss that follows may result in contour changes that can affect body image and quality of life. Our study examines the effects and consequences of bariatric surgery and subsequent body contouring on body image and quality(More)
Respiratory syncytial viruses encode a nonstructural protein (NS1) that interferes with type I and III interferon and other antiviral responses. Proteomic studies were conducted on human A549 type II alveolar epithelial cells and type I interferon-deficient Vero cells (African green monkey kidney cells) infected with wild-type and NS1-deficient clones of(More)