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BACKGROUND Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide, but many smokers are simply unable to quit. Psychosocial and pharmaceutical treatments have shown modest results on smoking cessation rates, but there is an urgent need to develop treatments with greater efficacy. Brain stimulation methods are gaining increasing interest as(More)
BACKGROUND Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a chronic course that is refractory to treatment in many patients and has one of the highest mortality rates of any psychiatric disorder. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied to circuit-based neuropsychiatric diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and major depression, with promising results. We aimed(More)
OBJECTIVES Bipolar disorder (BD) is a complex psychiatric disorder that is often underrecognized, misdiagnosed, and challenging to detect. During the past decade, substantial progress has been made in the development of pharmacotherapeutic and psychosocial interventions for various phases of BD. Notwithstanding these developments, the majority of BD(More)
BACKGROUND Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for psychiatric indications is becoming increasingly safe and effective. As a result, the treatment of these conditions by neurosurgeons is becoming more widespread and a larger part of the functional neurosurgeons' practice. Given the troubled history of the field and its current renaissance, it is important to(More)
Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) forms a core region of larger brain circuits that assign value to sensory inputs and interfaces motivational and cognitive dominated brain processes. This network function of the vmPFC could be realized by synchronizing local activity at time scales that are shared by connected brain areas, but it is unknown whether(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has proven to be an effective and safe treatment option in patients with various advanced and treatment-refractory conditions. Thus far, most of the experience with DBS has been in the movement disorder literature, and more specifically in the adult population, where its use in conditions such as Parkinson disease has(More)
BACKGROUND Interest in neurosurgery for psychiatric diseases (NPD) has grown globally. We previously reported the results of a survey of North American functional neurosurgeons that evaluated general attitudes towards NPD and the future directions of the field. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to expand on our previous work and obtain a snapshot(More)
Despite the best available medical treatments, many patients continue to be disabled by neurologic and psychiatric disorders, resulting in a large unmet need. Advances in imaging and neurophysiology over the last two decades have led to a reinterpretation of some neurologic and psychiatric conditions as primarily disorders of circuit function, or(More)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disease that is marked by recurring, anxiety-provoking thoughts (obsessions) accompanied by repetitive and time-consuming behaviors (compulsions). Among the controversies in the OCD literature is the issue of the origin of the disease and whether brain changes observed with modern imaging(More)
There is an urgent need for an effective therapy for treatment-refractory mental illness. Trials ongoing globally that explore surgical treatment, such as deep brain stimulation, for refractory psychiatric disease have produced some promising early results. However, diverse inclusion criteria and variable methodological and ethical standards, combined with(More)