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BACKGROUND Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a chronic course that is refractory to treatment in many patients and has one of the highest mortality rates of any psychiatric disorder. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied to circuit-based neuropsychiatric diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and major depression, with promising results. We aimed(More)
Despite the best available medical treatments, many patients continue to be disabled by neurologic and psychiatric disorders, resulting in a large unmet need. Advances in imaging and neurophysiology over the last two decades have led to a reinterpretation of some neurologic and psychiatric conditions as primarily disorders of circuit function, or(More)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disease that is marked by recurring, anxiety-provoking thoughts (obsessions) accompanied by repetitive and time-consuming behaviors (compulsions). Among the controversies in the OCD literature is the issue of the origin of the disease and whether brain changes observed with modern imaging(More)
BACKGROUND For patients with psychiatric illnesses remaining refractory to 'standard' therapies, neurosurgical procedures may be considered. Guidelines for safe and ethical conduct of such procedures have previously and independently been proposed by various local and regional expert groups. METHODS To expand on these earlier documents, representative(More)
BACKGROUND Much money and energy has been spent on the study of the molecular biology of malignant brain tumours. However, little attention has been paid to the wishes of patients afflicted with these incurable tumours, and how this might influence treatment considerations. METHODS We interviewed 29 individuals - 7 patients dying of a malignant brain(More)
BACKGROUND Essential tremor is the most common movement disorder and is often refractory to medical treatment. Surgical therapies, using lesioning and deep brain stimulation in the thalamus, have been used to treat essential tremor that is disabling and resistant to medication. Although often effective, these treatments have risks associated with an open(More)
BACKGROUND In 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandated 80-hour resident duty limits. In 2011 the ACGME mandated 16-hour duty maximums for PGY1 (post graduate year) residents. The stated goals were to improve patient safety, resident well-being, and education. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to(More)
BACKGROUND Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide, but many smokers are simply unable to quit. Psychosocial and pharmaceutical treatments have shown modest results on smoking cessation rates, but there is an urgent need to develop treatments with greater efficacy. Brain stimulation methods are gaining increasing interest as(More)
BACKGROUND Functional neurosurgery is a rapidly expanding field, with an exponentially growing literature. However, as with other fields, it can sometimes be difficult to distinguish between what is incremental and what is transformational. One way of measuring durable impact is examining the number of times a specific piece of scholarship is cited by(More)
Brain implants, such as Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), which are designed to improve motor, mood and behavioural pathology, present unique challenges to our understanding of identity, agency and free will. This is because these devices can have visible effects on persons' physical and psychological properties yet are essentially undetectable when operating(More)