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The degree to which an amino acid site is free to vary is strongly dependent on its structural and functional importance. An amino acid that plays an essential role is unlikely to change over evolutionary time. Hence, the evolutionary rate at an amino acid site is indicative of how conserved this site is and, in turn, allows evaluation of its importance in(More)
Key amino acid positions that are important for maintaining the 3D structure of a protein and/or its function(s), e.g. catalytic activity, binding to ligand, DNA or other proteins, are often under strong evolutionary constraints. Thus, the biological importance of a residue often correlates with its level of evolutionary conservation within the protein(More)
It is informative to detect highly conserved positions in proteins and nucleic acid sequence/structure since they are often indicative of structural and/or functional importance. ConSurf (http://consurf.tau.ac.il) and ConSeq (http://conseq.tau.ac.il) are two well-established web servers for calculating the evolutionary conservation of amino acid positions(More)
MOTIVATION A number of proteins of known three-dimensional (3D) structure exist, with yet unknown function. In light of the recent progress in structure determination methodology, this number is likely to increase rapidly. A novel method is presented here: 'Rate4Site', which maps the rate of evolution among homologous proteins onto the molecular surface of(More)
Experimental approaches for the identification of functionally important regions on the surface of a protein involve mutagenesis, in which exposed residues are replaced one after another while the change in binding to other proteins or changes in activity are recorded. However, practical considerations limit the use of these methods to small-scale studies,(More)
Modeling of integral membrane proteins and the prediction of their functional sites requires the identification of transmembrane (TM) segments and the determination of their angular orientations. Hydrophobicity scales predict accurately the location of TM helices, but are less accurate in computing angular disposition. Estimating lipid-exposure propensities(More)
MOTIVATION ConSeq is a web server for the identification of biologically important residues in protein sequences. Functionally important residues that take part, e.g. in ligand binding and protein-protein interactions, are often evolutionarily conserved and are most likely to be solvent-accessible, whereas conserved residues within the protein core most(More)
ConSurf-DB is a repository for evolutionary conservation analysis of the proteins of known structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Sequence homologues of each of the PDB entries were collected and aligned using standard methods. The evolutionary conservation of each amino acid position in the alignment was calculated using the Rate4Site algorithm,(More)
A general "multi-stage" regulation model, based on linearly connected regulatory units, is formulated to demonstrate how biochemical pathways may achieve high levels of accuracy. The general mechanism, which is robust to changes in biochemical parameters, such as protein concentration and kinetic rate constants, is incorporated into a mathematical model of(More)