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The degree to which an amino acid site is free to vary is strongly dependent on its structural and functional importance. An amino acid that plays an essential role is unlikely to change over evolutionary time. Hence, the evolutionary rate at an amino acid site is indicative of how conserved this site is and, in turn, allows evaluation of its importance in(More)
Key amino acid positions that are important for maintaining the 3D structure of a protein and/or its function(s), e.g. catalytic activity, binding to ligand, DNA or other proteins, are often under strong evolutionary constraints. Thus, the biological importance of a residue often correlates with its level of evolutionary conservation within the protein(More)
It is informative to detect highly conserved positions in proteins and nucleic acid sequence/structure since they are often indicative of structural and/or functional importance. ConSurf (http://consurf.tau.ac.il) and ConSeq (http://conseq.tau.ac.il) are two well-established web servers for calculating the evolutionary conservation of amino acid positions(More)
MOTIVATION A number of proteins of known three-dimensional (3D) structure exist, with yet unknown function. In light of the recent progress in structure determination methodology, this number is likely to increase rapidly. A novel method is presented here: 'Rate4Site', which maps the rate of evolution among homologous proteins onto the molecular surface of(More)
Experimental approaches for the identification of functionally important regions on the surface of a protein involve mutagenesis, in which exposed residues are replaced one after another while the change in binding to other proteins or changes in activity are recorded. However, practical considerations limit the use of these methods to small-scale studies,(More)
Modeling of integral membrane proteins and the prediction of their functional sites requires the identification of transmembrane (TM) segments and the determination of their angular orientations. Hydrophobicity scales predict accurately the location of TM helices, but are less accurate in computing angular disposition. Estimating lipid-exposure propensities(More)
The pore and gate regions of voltage-gated cation channels have been often targeted with drugs acting as channel modulators. In contrast, the voltage-sensing domain (VSD) was practically not exploited for therapeutic purposes, although it is the target of various toxins. We recently designed unique diphenylamine carboxylates that are powerful Kv7.2(More)
UNLABELLED We recently developed algorithmic tools for the identification of functionally important regions in proteins of known three dimensional structure by estimating the degree of conservation of the amino-acid sites among their close sequence homologues. Projecting the conservation grades onto the molecular surface of these proteins reveals patches of(More)
We used a nonredundant set of 621 protein-protein interfaces of known high-resolution structure to derive residue composition and residue-residue contact preferences. The residue composition at the interfaces, in entire proteins and in whole genomes correlates well, indicating the statistical strength of the data set. Differences between amino acid(More)