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Auditory enhancement of certain frequencies can occur through prior stimulation of surrounding frequency regions. The underlying neural mechanisms are unknown, but may involve stimulus-driven changes in cochlear gain via the medial olivocochlear complex (MOC) efferents. Cochlear implants (CIs) bypass the cochlea and stimulate the auditory nerve directly. If(More)
The loudness of a tone can be reduced by preceding it with a more intense tone. This effect, known as induced loudness reduction (ILR), has been reported to last for several seconds. The underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. One possible contributor to the effect involves changes in cochlear gain via the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents. Since(More)
Spectral contrast effects may help "normalize" the incoming sound and produce perceptual constancy in the face of the variable acoustics produced by different rooms, talkers, and backgrounds. Recent studies have concentrated on the after-effects produced by the long-term average power spectrum. The present study examined contrast effects based on spectral(More)
Reducing static NoC power consumption is becoming critical for energy-efficient computing as technology scales down since NoCs are devouring a large fraction of the on-chip power budget. We propose Fly-Over (FLOV), a light-weight distributed mechanism for power-gating routers. With simple modifications to the baseline router architecture, FLOV links are(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is a pleiotropic cytokine with intense pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, and anti-TNF-α biologics are effective therapies for various inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and sepsis. Snake venom, as a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases(More)
Context effects in loudness have been observed in normal auditory perception and may reflect a general gain control of the auditory system. However, little is known about such effects in cochlear-implant (CI) users. Discovering whether and how CI users experience loudness context effects should help us better understand the underlying mechanisms. In the(More)
—Scalable Networks-on-Chip (NoCs) have become the de facto interconnection mechanism in large scale Chip Multiprocessors. Not only are NoCs devouring a large fraction of the on-chip power budget but static NoC power consumption is becoming the dominant component as technology scales down. Hence reducing static NoC power consumption is critical for(More)
Auditory enhancement refers to the observation that the salience of one spectral region (the "signal") of a broadband sound can be enhanced and can "pop out" from the remainder of the sound (the "masker") if it is preceded by the broadband sound without the signal. The present study investigated auditory enhancement as an effective change in loudness, to(More)
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