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[1] Modeling studies indicate that double-headed streamers originating from single electron avalanches in lightning-driven quasi-static electric fields at mesospheric altitudes accelerate and expand, reaching transverse scales from tens to a few hundreds of meters and propagation speeds up to one tenth of the speed of light, in good agreement with recent(More)
[1] We compare sprite streamer modeling results with high-speed video recordings of sprites made with 50-ms temporal resolution. Both the modeling results and the sprite videos show that sprite streamers propagate with acceleration and expansion during the initial stage of sprite development. The acceleration computed from the modeling for the applied(More)
[1] Streamers are thin filamentary plasmas that can initiate spark discharges in relatively short (several centimeters) gaps at near ground pressures and are also known to act as the building blocks of streamer zones of lightning leaders. These streamers at ground pressure, after 1/N scaling with atmospheric air density N, appear to be fully analogous to(More)
A novel immersed boundary velocity correction–lattice Boltzmann method is presented and validated in this work by its application to simulate the two-dimensional flow over a circular cylinder. The present approach is inspired from the conventional immersed boundary method (IBM). In the conventional IBM, the effect of rigid body on the surrounding flow is(More)
Recent evidence suggests that exercise improves functional outcome in animal models of cerebral ischemia. Since netrin-1 and its receptors, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and uncoordinated gene 5B (Unc5B), act as important regulators in neural and vascular activities, we sought to determine whether netrin-1 and DCC and Unc5B are involved in the(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), expressed in a population of periglomerular neurons intrinsic to the olfactory bulb, displays dramatic down-regulation in response to odor deprivation. To begin to elucidate the importance of immediate early genes (IEG) in TH gene regulation, the present study examined expression of IEGs in the olfactory bulb in response to odor(More)
A real-time and accurate object detection framework, C 4 , is proposed in this paper. C 4 achieves 20 fps speed and state-of-the-art detection accuracy, using only one processing thread without resorting to special hardwares like GPU. Real-time accurate object detection is made possible by two contributions. First, we conjecture (with supporting(More)
[1] Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are bright, sub-millisecond bursts of gamma-rays, originating within the Earth's atmosphere. Most TGFs have been detected by spacecraft in low-Earth orbit. Only two TGFs have previously been observed from within our atmosphere: one at ground level and one from an aircraft at 14.1 km. We report on a new TGF-like(More)
Using DNA constructs containing regulatory sequences of the zebrafish Pdx-1 and insulin genes, germline transgenic zebrafish expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene in the pancreas were generated. For both constructs, the GFP expression patterns in transgenic embryos were consistent with the mRNA expression patterns detected by RNA in(More)