Ningning Xu

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The acidogenic Clostridium tyrobutyricum has recently been metabolically engineered to produce n-butanol. The objective of this study was to obtain a comprehensive understanding as to how butanol production was regulated in C. tyrobutyricum to guide the engineering of next-generation strains. We performed a comparative proteomics analysis, covering 78.1% of(More)
  • Lixiang Liu, Xueqian Zhang, +7 authors Shuang Zhang
  • 2014
By combining the freedom of both the structural design and the orientation of split ring resonator antennas, we demonstrate terahertz metasurfaces that are capable of controlling both the phase and amplitude profiles over a very broad bandwidth. As an example, we show that the phase-amplitude metasurfaces can be engineered to control the diffraction orders(More)
Biobutanol is a sustainable green biofuel that can substitute for gasoline. Carbon flux has been redistributed in Clostridium tyrobutyricum via metabolic cell engineering to produce biobutanol. However, the lack of reducing power hampered the further improvement of butanol production. The objective of this study was to improve butanol production by(More)
Mimicking the quantum phenomena in metamaterials through coupled classical resonators has attracted enormous interest. Metamaterial analogs of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) enable promising applications in telecommunications, light storage, slow light and sensing. Although the EIT effect has been studied extensively in coupled metamaterial(More)
By utilizing the vector nature of light as well as the inherent anisotropy of artificial meta-atoms, we investigate parity time symmetry breaking in polarization space using a metasurface with anisotropic absorption, whose building blocks consist of two orthogonally orientated meta-atoms with the same resonant frequency but different loss coefficients. By(More)
The near and far field coupling behavior in plasmonic and metamaterial systems have been extensively studied over last few years. However, most of the coupling mechanisms reported in the past have been passive in nature which actually fail to control the coupling mechanism dynamically in the plasmonic metamaterial lattice array. Here, we demonstrate a(More)
Metasurfaces provide great flexibility in tailoring light beams and reveal unprecedented prospects on novel functional components. However, techniques to dynamically control and manipulate the properties of metasurfaces are lagging behind. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we present an active wave deflector made from a metasurface with phase(More)
1 We have designed, fabricated and characterized dual-wavelength metasurfaces that function at two assigned terahertz wavelengths with independent phase and amplitude control at each wavelength. Specifically, we have designed a dual-wavelength achromatic metasurface-based deflector deflecting the incident wave to the same direction at two selected(More)
Metamaterials, offering unprecedented functionalities to manipulate electromagnetic waves, have become a research hotspot in recent years. Through the incorporation of active media, the exotic electromagnetic behavior of metamaterials can be dramatically empowered by dynamic control. Many ferroelectric materials such as BaSrTiO3 (abbreviated as BST),(More)
Cancer is a complex invasive genetic disease that causes significant mortality rate worldwide. Protein-based biopharmaceuticals have significantly extended the lives of millions of cancer patients. This article reviews the biological function and application of targeted anticancer biopharmaceuticals. We first discuss the specific antigens and core pathways(More)